The Virginia Journal

Virginia Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance


Vol. 43, No.1

Photo Credit: Dr. Anna Devito

VAHPERD Members, It is my pleasure to serve as the editor of The Virginia Journal (TVJ) and Communicator. Enclosed you will find the Spring/Summer 2022 issue. I hope to continue the successful publications of TVJ and Communicator. However, the success of TVJ and the Communicator only go as far as the members and our submissions. I ask that you continue to submit the quality work you have in the past. Let the state, region and nation know the outstanding work we are doing in VAHPERD. So this is my continued call for manuscripts for the next issue of TVJ and news information for the Communicator. The TVJ and Communicator depend on the submissions from our exceptional professionals working in the field. So please continue to e-mail me your manuscripts and news by January 15 and July 15 as a Word attachment for the two publications. Please follow the manuscript guidelines posted in each issue of TVJ. My contact information is below. Sincerely, Michael Moore, PhD, LAT, ATC Professor, HHP

Clinical Coordinator, ATP 540-831-6218


Mission Statement VAHPERD is a professional association of educa tors that advocate quality programs in health, physical education, recreation, dance and sport. The association seeks to facilitate the profes sional growth and educational practices and legislation that will impact the profession. VAHPERD Values • Excel lence in teaching, research and educational practices in HPERD and related professions • Positive efforts to promote our disciplines • Professional integr i ty and high ethical standards • Effective communication within and between members and related professionals • An active and healthy lifestyle • Embracing the role of special and diverse populations

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T able of C ontents

The Virginia Journal Editorial Board

Volume 43, Number 1

Spring/Summer 2022

Jamie Best Avita Health System Robert Case Old Dominion University Rodney Gaines Hampton University Melissa Grim Radford University Kenny Harrah Warm Hearth Village Jay Johnson Virginia Military Institute Brandon Kimble Virginia State University Matthew D. Lucas Longwood University April Moore Dublin Elementary

Benefits of Recess for Students with Sensory Processing Disorder ...........................2

Teamwork and Collaboration - The story of Virginia State University's partnership with the Blandford Learning Academy in Petersburg, Virginia ..............5

Activities for Physical Education for Students with a Enchondroma Disorder .........7

Tactical Games Approach in Physical Education .....................................................10

Social Benefits of Recess for Individuals with Visual Impairments . .......................14

Guidelines for Manuscript Submission (Revised Spring 2021) . ...................................16

Michael Moore Editor Radford University

Executive Director Mike Maina

VAHPERD President Megan McLaughlin

VAHPERD President-Elect Donna Wilbur VAHPERD Past President Mark Arrington

The opinions of the contributors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the attitude or views of VAHPERD, its officers, or the editor of this Journal. VAHPERD does not discriminate in this or any other of its programs on the basis of color, religion, age, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, disability or handicap.


Benefits of Recess for Students with Sensory Processing Disorder Dr. Pamela Randall , Assistant Professor, Coordinator of Education Programs @NCI, Longwood University Matthew D. Lucas , Ed.D., Professor of Physical and Health Education, Longwood University

Hailey Lynch , Longwood University Undergraduate Student Hope Willingham , Longwood University Undergraduate Student

Introduction Recess provides an important time for students to form relationships with others and learn about themselves. In the following sections, Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) will be discussed in depth. First, SPD will be defined, and its prevalence will be noted. According to the DSM-V, the classification of the disorder will then be presented, followed by the legal aspects in regards to SPD and special education law. Characteristics of the disorder will then be addressed, followed by a discussion on the social and physical benefits that recess provides to students with sensory integration. Lastly, a description of basic recess modifications to assist SPD students to thrive will be suggested. Definition and Prevalence of Sensory Processing Disorder The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defines Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) as “a condition in which a child has difficulties receiving and responding to sensory information, such as seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching” (CDC,

2019, p.1). Sensory processing disorder affects 5 to 16 percent of children (University of California San Francisco, 2013, p.1). This means in a class of 20 students; statistically, one-three children may have this disorder. The cause of the disorder is unknown. According toMiller et al. (2007), SPDcan be subdivided into three groups: Modulation Disorder (SMD), Sensory Discrimination Disorder (SDD), and Sensory-Based Motor Disorder (SBMD). The following chart by Miller et al. (2007) outlines these subsets. DSM-V - Classification Dilemma As noted earlier, SPD symptoms in children are “impairments in the accurate reception and registering of stimuli, differentiation of stimulus intensity, and adequate reactivity to stimulation” (CDC, 2019, p.1). Subtypes of SPD are categorized as one of the following three: Sensory Over-Responsivity, Sensory Under-Responsivity, and Sensory Seeking (Borkowska, 2017). However, based on the meta-analysis of Borkowska (2017), it is challenging to isolate SPD as a singular diagnosis, and that it is most often linked to another diagnosis, most commonly Autism.

Sensory processing disorders


DSM-V - Classification Dilemma

Legal Aspects The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children determined to have disabilities receive special education services if the condition negatively affects the educational performance of the child (IDEA, 2004). As noted, a child with SPD can display serious signs and symptoms that can affect the performance of the child in an educational setting. Therefore, children should be given special education services when it impacts a student’s educational performance. Characteristics Sensory processing disorders can often be recognized when a child is young, usually around the age of a toddler (Arky, 2021a). Parents may notice the child being antagonized by stimuli such as specific amounts of light, frequencies of sounds, adherence to certain food textures, or struggling with fine motor abilities such as properly holding and using a crayon. Lucy Miller (2009), the founder of the first Sensory Processing Disorder research program in the United States, explains SPD as a diagnosis based on the child’s ability to detect and adapt to sensory stimulation, if there are noted disturbances in the ability to adapt, and how severely the lack of adaptation affects the child’s daily life. Research published in Cogent Medicine by Dr. Adrian Galiana Simal from the University of Madrid found a link between SPD and a higher risk of depression and psychopathology (Galiana Simal, et al., 2020). It should also be noted that up to 60% of children with SPD also have been diagnosed with ADHD (STAR Institute, n.d.) Social Benefits For students with SPD, interacting with others can be difficult. Issues recognizing social cues, understanding emotions, and poor social problem-solving skills can cause students to be isolated frompeers (John, 2021). Recess provides an environment inwhich students can learn how tomanage their SPDwith and around peers and form a community (Binder, 2021). Students learn behavioral norms and social expectations through observation, experience, and peer relationships. Building knowledge of how to interact with others is important for socialization and the student’s sense of self. Recess, when organized and appropriately run, promotes cooperative play, which helps students with SPD practice regulating their own emotions and recognizing the emotions of others. In addition, playing and conversing with peers helps build social and physical confidence and sharing skills (Binder, 2021). The primary benefit of recess is socialization, as it can be one of the only non-regulated social times of the school day (Kovar, 2012). More often than their typical peers, students with SPD will less likely be involved in a social activity that is centered outside of school or home (Suarez, 2012). Physical Benefits Students canusemultiple outlets during recess to either stimulate or calm their senses based on what they need. Children each deal with their senses and react to different environments in unique ways (Thompson, 2013). Recess provides a time to do physical activity and play, which can focus the mind of an overstimulated

child, preparing them for return to the classroom (Thompson, 2013). For a child who may be understimulated, recess provides a time for stimulating activities. This time can be utilized to stimulate senses by participating in games, socialization, using playground equipment, and other activities. Academic skills can also be integrated into recess, for example, practicing counting while jumping rope or sketching letters with chalk on pavement. Children with sensory processing disorder can have difficulties with spatial relations, balance, and processing the amount of force they are using (Arky, 2021). Recess provides the opportunity for a child to practice and improve these skills independently, with other students and teachers. Other professionals, such as occupational therapists, can offer exercise ideas, games, or pre planned activities, to increase the likelihood that the students get sensory exercise or rest, whichever is deemed most appropriate for the student (Arky, 2021). Modifications It is important to remember that SPD is neurological - not cognitive. When reading the following modifications, it is also important to note that the needs of children with SPD may include properly performing skills while also knowing how their bodies are situated in relation to others. Cosbey, Johnston, and Dunn (2010) recommended three potential goals when working with children with SPD: (a) identify activities that bring joy and meaning to the individual child, (b) strategize ways that the child can successfully engage in the activity, and (c) use these activities to build his or her social circles with peers.” The authors recommend the following modification during recess for children with SPD. However, it must be remembered that these modifications are not appropriate for all children with SPD. Decisions should be based on the individual needs of the student. • Supply a variety of balls for activities of different sizes, colors, and textures to allow a student to choose which is most comfortable for them. • Allow the student to move away from any loud noises, including a game that other children are playing. • Consider using earplugs with soft music that the student enjoys or noise-canceling headphones. • Interact with the student while displaying proper behavior; this includes eye contact while speaking, correct social distancing, and correct tone. • Develop an alternative method for the student to communicate with a partner or the teacher when the student is uncomfortable in a particular situation. An example would be the use of simple sign language. • Remove any excess stimuli. • Allow the use of a “cool down pass” for the student to leave an uncomfortable stimulus. • Assist a student in being included in a recess activity, then remove yourself and observe the student’s level of participation. • Always have activities that the student has shown comfort with as an alternative choice.


Conclusion Recess provides an important time for students to form social relationships with others and practice recreation-type activities at recess. The authors have presented a variety of recess modifications for a student with SPD after describing the disorder in detail. Hopefully, some of these modifications will be useful to the reader. Disclaimer: This manuscript is for informational purposes only. The information provided in this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. References Arky, B. (2021). Sensory processing issues explained. Child Mind Institute . Retrieved January13, 2022, from https:// Arky, B. (2021). How sensory processing issues affect kids in school. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved December 27, 2021, from issues-affect-kids-in-school/ Binder, L. (2021). Look again: Making friends with Sensory processing disorder. New York Bank Street College of Education . Retrieved December 28, 2021, from (pages 16-19) Borkowska, A. R. (2017). Sensory processing disorders diagnostic and therapeutic controversies. Current Issues in Personality Psychology , 5 (3), 196–205. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Key findings: Autism symptoms among children enrolled in the study to explore early development. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Retrieved January 9, 2022, from autism-symptoms-children-enrolled-in-seed.html Comorbidity. Sensory processing. Star Institute (n.d.). Retrieved January 10, 2022, from Cosbey, J., Johnston, S., and Dunn L. (2011). Playground behaviors of children with and without Sensory Processing Disorders. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research (OTJR) : Thousand Island, CA. Kovar, S., Combs, C., Campbell, K., Napper-Owen, G., & Worrell, V. (2012). Elementary classroom teachers as movement educators (4th Ed.). McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA. Galiana-Simal, A, Vela-Romero, M, Romero-Vela, V. M., Oliver Tercero, N, García-Olmo, V, Javier Benito-Castellanos, P,

Muñoz-Martinez, V, Beato-Fernandez, L | Udo Schumacher (2020) Sensory processing disorder: Key points of a frequent alteration in neurodevelopmental disorders, Cogent Medicine , 7 (1), DOI:10.1080/2331205X.2020.1736829 Goodman-Scott, E and Lambert, S.F. (2015). Professional counseling for children with sensory processing disorder. Counseling & Human Services Faculty Publications .12. Retrieved January 10, 2022 from https://digitalcommons. withDisabilities Education Act, Pub. L. No. 108-466 (2004). John, T.S., Estes, A., Begay, K.K., Munson, J., Reiter, M.A., Dager, S.R. & Kleinhans, N (2021) . Characterizing social functioning in school-age children with sensory processing Abnormalities. Journal of Autism Development and Disorder .Retrieved January 16, 2022 from https://doi. org/10.1007/s10803-021-05050-4 Miller, L. J., Anzalone, M. E, Lane, S. J, Cermak, S. A., and Osten, E.T.(2007). Concept evolution in sensory Integration: A proposed nosology for diagnosis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 61 (2), 135–140. https:// Miller, L. J., Nielsen, D. M., Schoen, S. A., & Brett-Green, B. A. (2009). Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: A call for translational research. Frontiers in integrative neuroscience , 3 , 22. neuro.07.022.2009 Mulligan, S., Douglas, S., &Armstrong, C. (2021). Characteristics of idiopathic sensory processing disorder in young children. Frontiers in integrative neuroscience , 15 , 647928. Suarez A. Michelle. (2014). Sensory processing in children with Autism spectrum disorders and impact on functioning. Retrieved December 28, 2021 from 3955(11)00147-7/fulltext Thompson S.D, Raisor J.M. (2013). Meeting the sensory needs of young children. Retrieved December 28, 2021, from University of California San Francisco. (2013). Breakthrough study reveals biological basis for sensory processing disorders in kids. Breakthrough Study Reveals Biological Basis for Sensory Processing Disorders in Kids in UC San Francisco. Retrieved January 9, 2022, from study-reveals-biological-basis-sensory-processing disorderskids#:~: text=Sensory%20processing%20 disorders%20affect%205,motor%20skills%20and%20 easy%20distractibility.


Teamwork and Collaboration - The story of Virginia State University's partnership with the Blandford Learning Academy in Petersburg, Virginia Donna M. Kanary, Ed.D., Coordinator of Physical Education Teacher Preparation Program, Virginia State University Leslie Crocker, Department Chair, Department of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Virginia State University Trevon Epps , Virginia State University Undergraduate Student

Kiaria Granderson , Virginia State University Undergraduate Student Ronnie Johnson , Virginia State University Undergraduate Student Daniel Rogerson , Virginia State University Undergraduate Students

In the summer of 2021, Principal Reva Green at the Blandford Learning Academy in Petersburg, Virginia reached out to the Department of Health, Physical Education and Recreation (HPER) at Virginia State University (VSU). Principal Green requested theVSUHPER department consider providing physical education classes for her students. This alternative school has no physical education instructor on staff. First, equipment considerations needed to be addressed because the school had none of their own. To fill the lack of equipment, more community partnerships needed to be involved. Victory Lady Fitness Center in Richmond had a back-to-school drive to include sports equipment; and through that program, we provided Blandford Learning Academy with numerous footballs, soccer balls, indoor nets, and basketballs as well as academic supplies for 50 book bags. Virginia State University students developed an inventory record of the equipment for Principal Green. Next, curriculum planning began. Students at Blandford are working towards graduation in an alternative setting. It was decided that lifetime sports activities would be the best option. Tennis equipment was donated by the USTA. Further, community golfers were contacted and the school received donations of almost 40 putters and golf balls. This equipment lead to the first unit of study-mini golf. VSU’s Dr. Donna Kanary built a portable nine-hole mini-golf course to donate to the school. Instruction for Blandford students was provided by the Virginia State University’s Department of Physical Educations teacher education candidates.

The VSU students established objectives for the mini golf unit and aligned them with the Virginia Department of Education Standards of Learning. The VSU students developed interactive warm-ups, provided skill practice, pre and post assessments, score cards, vocabulary as well as follow up plans for the school’s teachers.

The culminating activity was a field trip to the local mini golf course, Swader’s Sports Park. Blandford transported eligible students to the course and Swader’s Sports Park was generous enough to offer discount rates for all participants. Virginia State students and Blandford students were joined by VSU HPER department chair, Ms. Leslie Crocker and Dean of the College of Education, Dr. Willis Walter.


Impact on Student Learning Virginia State University health and physical education teacher candidates are learning to write descriptive lesson plans and implement progressive instruction for middle and high school students each week. This program allows students to have real teaching experience and provide impactful learning activities for students in need, at no cost to the school. Author Bell Hooks describes education as collaborative engagement. Both students and teachers learn from each other as the educational process develops. The students enrolled in Blandford’s alternative education program are working through the adversity in their lives to complete their education. They were not expecting physical education in their program but were extremely glad to have this additional instruction. One of the Blandford faculty members shared that he had not seen these students so excited and engaged in school.

Perhaps one of the most rewarding conversations came about during the field trip to Swader’s Sports Park. One of the students, only 2 semesters from graduation, shared with Dr. Kanary her excitement over the program. She said “I really learned a lot from you all this semester. I really appreciate you coming over to the school. You didn’t have to and sometimes people forget us over there.” Further, she expressed that she would be submitting an application at Virginia State University in the fall after graduation. Virginia State University HPER students learned a lot about instruction, planning, and delivery. Blandford students practiced skills, interaction, vocabulary, and comradie. Everyone grew during the educational process. Students will continue this program in the future and we are considering other non-traditional lifetime sports such as pickleball, ping pong, and cornhole for instruction.


Activities for Physical Education for Students with a Enchondroma Disorder Hope Willingham , Longwood University Undergraduate Student Matthew D. Lucas , Ed.D.,Professor of Physical and Health Education, Longwood University

Introduction “I am rare, and there is value in all rarity; therefore, I am valu able” (Mandino, 1968). Og Mandino, anAmerican author born in 1923 once stated these previous words. This concept of value is something hopefully taught to children, regardless of ability level, through interaction with their families and peers from a young age. Children do not just learn this from their time playing with peers, but also from their interactions in classes, such as physical education class during school. Imagine a child born with an Enchondroma Disorder, a “type of orthopedic disorder causing benign tumor growth, such as Multiple Hereditary Exostosis (MHE)” (About MHE, n.d., para. 2). This little girl goes to a public school. As a student with a disability, the student should receive accommodations to allow her to not only interact with her class in physical education but also thrive. However, this is not the case for this student. Instead, she is left out of activities and simply told to watch, out of fear from the teachers that the girl will get hurt causing a variety of problems including potential serious injury and legal problems. There are no physical education modifications made to the activities done in the class so that she can be included, regardless of how simple these modifications can be. The little girl is use to this and does not expect anything more. However, remember, “I am rare, and there is value in all rarity; therefore, I am valuable”. Now imagine this little girl has grown up. By ninth grade, she is disillusioned and left out of physical education activities. By the tenth grade, this girl is not a part of any physical education lesson at all, she just sits in the bleachers and watches as her classmates interact, learn, and participate in physical education. Instead of participating and spending time with her classmates, the girl is given worksheets at the beginning of the year and told to finish them by the end of the year, with no inclusion of physical activi ties, much less anything adapted to her needs. Is this how physical education class could/should possibly be for a student with MHE? Remember, “I am rare, and there is value in all rarity; therefore, I am valuable”. Even though the age of this student has changed, her educa tional modifications have not. This is not an uncommon story. It is reasonable to assume that some physical education teachers simply do not know what to do for children with specific ortho pedic disabilities, are fearful of the student getting injured, and may opt to simply leave them out of physical activities rather than follow the procedures to adapt the tasks. This manuscript looks at potential appropriate activities that could be implemented to allow these students with one specific orthopedic condition, Multiple Hereditary Exostosis (MHE), to join and participate with their peers in physical education. Definition of Multiple Hereditary Exostosis Multiple Hereditary Exostosis is an autosomal dominant

disorder, meaning that one copy of this mutation can cause this disorder to appear in children (About MHE, n.d). The MHE Research Foundation explains the cause of this disorder in the following manner: “There are two known genes found to cause MHE. They are EXT1 located on chromosome 8q23-q24 and EXT2 located on chromosome 11p11-p12. Approximately 60% to 70% of mutations are located in the EXT1 gene and 20% to 30% are located in the EXT2 gene. In 10% to 20% of patients, no mutation is found. EXT1 and EXT2 have been identified as tumor suppressor genes since loss of heterozygosity at these loci occurs in MHE patients whose benign tumors transform into chondrosarcomas.” (About MHE, n.d., para. 2) The International Center for Limb Lengthening stated in 2021 that “MHE causes a failure of the body to stop cells that produce cartilage and bone growth near the growth plates located on the long bones.” (Multiple Hereditary Exostosis (MHE), n.d., para. 2) Characteristics Multiple Hereditary Exostosis is defined by John Hopkins Medi cine as “a genetic condition often passed down to a child by one parent, but it can also be caused by a genetic mutation, meaning it can occur on its own by a change. The gene for hereditary mul tiple exostosis [MHE] produces a protein that affects bone growth and development, causing bony growths called exostoses” (John Hopkins Medicine, n.d, Hereditary multiple exostosis (diahyseal aclasia), para. 2). Students with the disorder often display charac teristics similar to other orthopedic conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Scoliosis as they can cause mobility issues, limb length discrepancy, joint pain and swelling. The most common bones affected by this disorder: • Femur • Tibia • Fibula • Humerus (Multiple Hereditary Exostosis (MHE), n.d., para. 2) Even though these are the most commonly affected bones, more severe cases of this disorder can affect any or all of the bones found in the body (Multiple Hereditary Exostosis, n.n., para2). In addition to the aforementioned characteristics, John Hopkins Medicine states other symptoms may include the following: • Pressure on the tendons, nerves, and vessels • Angular deformities in the arms and legs due to the growths • Limb lengthen differences if one limb is more involved with the growths than the other • Growths can also become malignant (cancerous) in a small percentage of patients, roughly 5 percent (Hereditary mul tiple exostosis (John Hopkins Medical , n.d., para. 4) Please note that there no current cure for MHE. Surgical cor-


rection of misalignment of bones is an option, but this is done to simply address pain, which will likely return (John Hopkins Medical , n.d., para. 4). Importance of Physical Education for Students with Enchondroma Disorders Physical Education, with safe modifications, is of the utmost importance for students with Enchondroma Disorders, regardless of age or grade level. Physical Education helps students develop their motor skills through activities, promotes cooperation and competition, and improves a student’s overall wellness (Kovar, 2012). For students with Enchondroma Disorders, this may be more difficult, as a key symptom of the disorder is mobility limitations. However, it is still possible. Appropriate activities can be implemented to gain the benefits of including students with MHE in activities done with the entire class. A discussion with the student’s doctor would be ideal but teachers should send a list of planned activities to the home and let the parents note what is acceptable. Remember, one disorder can have different symptoms on different children.

Zecchin-Oliveira, a researcher, professor, and PhD student at Ribeirão Preto Medical School (USP-FMRP) states: “It is already understood that physical exercise promotes pain improvement and prevents /treats plenty of diseases, such as: cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthrosis, type II diabetes, obesity, among others [26-30]. Studies involving large populations have shown that physically active indi viduals have a significant decrease in the risk of developing chronic pain [31,32]” (Zecchin-Oliveira, 2020). This shows the sheer importance of physical exercise, especially for students with disorders such as Multiple Hereditary Exostosis, where chronic pain is a common symptom. Physical Education Activities for Students with Multiple Hereditary Exostosis Physical activities for individuals with MHE should take into consideration intensity for a variety of reasons including safety. Please note, needs will vary from student to student; the authors are just noting the common issues with suggestions. Each child needs to be evaluated based on their personal characteristics.

Suggested Potential Appropriate Activities Based on the Pain Threshold

Suggested Potential Appropriate Activities Based on the Pain Threshold

How the Child is Feeling Before Class

Potential Activities for Students with MHE

How the Child is Feeling Before Class

Potential Activities for Students with MHE

Student enters class with a Higher Level of Pain

• Rolling a light ball • Stretching • Yoga • Rolling a light ball • Stretching • Yoga • Kickball • Playing Horse • Four Square

Student enters class with a Higher Level of Pain

• Jogging • Fencing • Badminton • Dancing • Walking • Hula Hoops • Kickball • Playing Horse • Four Square • Jogging • Fencing • Badminton

Student enters class with a Moderate Level of Pain

Student enters class with a Moderate Level of Pain

• Tennis • Wiffle Ball • Volleyball • Danci g • Walking • Hula Hoops

Student enters class with No or Lower Level of Pain

• Running • Sprinting • Basketball • Tenn s • Wiffle Ball • Volleyball

Student enters class with No or Lower Level of

• Running • Sprinting • Basketball



Conclusion Participation for a student with a specific orthopedic disability such as MHE in physical education is not easy but is necessary for the teacher and/or student.While this manuscript provides potential activities in physical education for a student with MHE, they are not going to be successful for every student. The manuscript does provide the teacher a blueprint to consult, and hopefully modify their curriculum accordingly. Working with a student with a dis ability is rewarding, as these students need the support and exercise that physical education can offer to them, all you have to do is try. Try to imagine the child. Should they be thinking, “I am rare, and there is value in all rarity; therefore, I am valuable”. This paper is written to discuss potential appropriate modifica tions for children with Multiple Hereditary Exostosis. The authors are not medical doctors and this manuscript should not be a sub stitute for medical advice from a licensed physician. References Chase, G. (n.d.). Activity Program Management . Retrieved Oc tober 30, 2021, from main.htm#7 Heuristic. (n.d.). The MHE Research Foundation . Retrieved from John Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Hereditary multiple exostosis (diahyseal aclasia). Johns Hopkins Medicine . Retrieved October 30, 2021, from health/conditions-and-diseases/hereditary-multiple-exosto sis-diahyseal-aclasia Kovar, S., Combs, C., Campbell, K., Napper-Owen, G., & Wor rell, V. (2012). Elementary classroom teachers as movement educators (4th Ed.). McGraw-Hill:Boston, MA. Levine, G. (2010). Cardiology secrets (3 rd Ed.). Elsevier Inc: Amsterdam, NL. Mandino, O. (1968). The greatest salesman in the world . Bantam Books. Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) . International Center for Limb Lengthening. (2021). Retrieved October 30, 2021, from hereditary-exostoses-mhe/. St Mary’s Medical Center. (2018, March 27). Multiple hereditary exostoses . Paley Orthopedic & Spine Institute. Retrieved October 30, 2021, from conditions/multiple-hereditary-exostoses/#/. Zecchin-Oliveira, A.M, & Poli-Neto, O.B. (2020) Influence of physical exercise in pain threshold in human: A systematic review. Integrated Clinical Medicine, 2-6. https://www.oa in-human-a-systematic-review.php

Parents should be included in communication and approve of the activities. All of these issues should be implemented with further modifications such as distance regulations and equipment modifi cations. Also, the physical education teacher should remember to listen to the suggestions of the student with MHE when creating/ modifying the activities for the class. This should be kept into consideration when modifying activities for children. GaryA. Chase, a Professor of Exercise Science at Pacific Lutheran University for 30 years and creator of the MHE Fitness Program ming System says all exercises should include the following: “ Warm-up . The major purpose of the warm-up is to elevate heart rate and body temperature, and increase blood flow to the muscles. The warm-up period should be gradual (5-15 minutes) consisting of low-intense exercise and stretching. The Stretching exercises should be included as part of the warm-up and cool-down periods after muscle temperature is increased. Cool-down . The conditioning session should end with 5-15 minutes of light exercises and stretching. The cool-down promotes blood return to the heart and prevents blood pooling in the legs. The cool-down may also stabilize heart action and decrease the amount of muscle soreness fol lowing exercise. A beneficial cool-down should consist of light exercise such as walking and calisthenics for at least 5 minutes followed by flexibility exercises. The flexibility exercises should primarily focus on the muscles used during the exercise session.” (Chase, para. 11) In terms of activities that may be appropriate for the student, the following is a chart that show potential activities for the student depending on the student’s potential pain level.As noted previously activities should be cleared with the parents, with doctor input. The chart begins with activities when a child is experiencing a higher level of pain and progresses to activities for individuals who are experiencing a lower level of pain. So how do you implement this for younger students, who are unable to fully explain to you their pain level? The authors of this article recommend the use of a chart for students to note their pain level such as the one shown below. So how do you implement this for younger students, who are unable to fully explain to you their pain level? The authors of this article recommend the use of a chart for students to note their pain level such as the one shown below.

How do you feel today? How do you feel today?




Participation for a student with a specific orthopedic disability such as MHE in physical education is not easy but is necessary for the teacher and/or student. While this manuscript provides potential activities in physical education for a student with MHE, they are not going to

Tactical Games Approach in Physical Education Seungyeon Park , Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Health, Physical Education & Exercise Science Department, Norfolk State University Ann-Catherine Sullivan , Ph.D., CAPE, COI, Department of the Health, Physical Education & Exercise Science Department, Norfolk State University ‘creating space’ and ‘defending space’ under the situations of off-the-ball movements and on-the-ball-skills. to transfer their knowledge into one another sports during the game situations. For instance, ‘tactical awareness’ in invasion games such as soccer, football and team-handball include examples such as ‘maintaining possession of the ball’, ‘attacking the goal’, ‘creating space’ and ‘defending space’ under the situations of off-the-ball movements and on-the-ball-skills. There are even benefits of dividing sport activities into the same specific category,

Abstract There are several pedagogical practices and curriculummodels for students in physical education classes. This article focuses on tactical games approach (TGA) as an instructional model designed for teaching sports centered on tactical awareness. There is an introduction to explain TGA and its framework followed by review of TGA research across elementary to secondary level physical education classes. Next, TGA literature that targeted the adult population were reviewed with a focus on implementation of TGA. The final section describes general ideas to implement TGA. Introduction What is the best pedagogical approach in order to instruct students in physical education (PE) settings? This question has two folds as teaching and learning. Depending on how physical educators utilize their pedagogical approach in PE settings, students can maximize their understanding and then participate in sports with a great amount of motivation. Experts have diverse perspectives about their practices and pedagogical approach in relation to teaching and learning in PE. There is a notion that tactics are a more integral part for promoting learning of students in PE. In traditional teaching methods, sports skills taught in isolated environment cannot easily transferred into game and sports performance . With this most concerned critic in traditional teaching method, there were comparatively recent teaching approaches as (1) Teaching Games for Understanding and (2) Tactical Games approach (TGA). These two models actively employ a modified game playing to promote student’s understanding in relation to sports and game playing. TGAis more emphasizing to teach tactics to perform sports effectively. TGA is both student-centered and subject matter pedagogical approach because it enables students to learn and then apply those skills in the particular tactical situations; students will have ‘tactical awareness’ which is about knowing what they are required to do in the specific playing situations in sports (Gréhaigne et al, 1999). The rationale is that teaching sports with TGA enables students have more excitement by having them to playing game, develop their knowledge and its natural transference into sport performance throughout a series of questions in developmentally assigned game Mitchell et al, 2021). Additionally, there are four different categories of sports which can be considered with TGA use when teaching sports for students; net/wall, invasion, target and striking/fielding category (Almond, 2015). Sports in the same sport category will share similarities. With the same ‘tactical awareness’, students will be more likely to transfer their knowledge into one another sports during the game situations. For instance, ‘tactical awareness’ in invasion games such as soccer, football and team-handball include examples such as ‘maintaining possession of the ball’, ‘attacking the goal’,

There are even benefits of dividing sport activities into the same specific category, we need to be aware that different sports in the same category also will require different aspects hugely which are more related to skills rather than strategies. As an example, Diagram 1 describes tactical awareness for both on-the object and off-the-object movement in ultimate frisbee and team handball. With this identifiable ‘ tactical awareness’ , physical educators should reflect different level of ‘tactical complexity’ of the game or sports for their students assuming that there is different skill level of learners (Mitchell et al, 2021). we need to be aware that different sports in the same category also will require different aspects hugely which are more related to skills rather than strategies. As an example, Diagram 1 describes tactic l awareness for both on-the-object and off-the-object movem nt in ultimate frisbee and team handball. With this identifiable ‘ tactical awareness’ , physical educators should reflect different level of ‘tactical complexi y’ of the game or sports for their students assuming that there is different skill level of learners (Mitchell et al, 2021). Ultimate Frisbee Team Handball

On the object Passing Underhand throw Backhand throw Flick Catching Thumb Down Thumb up

On the object Passing Chest pass Bounce pass Catching Jump stop

Off the object Support object carrier On the object Passing Catching Target hand

Conceptual Framework of Tactical Games Approach PE teachers can identify the most important tactical problems in their sports lesson unit. First step for TGA is providing modified game playing practice for students to promote student’s decision-making in given tactical awareness situations. One of considerations is level of tactical complexity when identifying tactical awareness. There are diverse learners in relation to skill level and understanding of sports performance in PE classes. Next, students are asked to answer about the modified game situations and these parts are specifically linked to student’s understanding. These are all related to psychomotor (on and off the-ball movement), cognitive (tactical awareness and decision making) and affective domain (communication skill and sport person-ship). At the next level, students can be introduced into modified game playing practice again followed by next level game playing to prove and show improved skill level as well as reinforcing problem-solving and decision-making (Mitchell et al, 2021). Review of Tactical Games Approach Literature Anumber of research studies have been conducted to examine the effectiveness of TGA with respect to learning games for school aged children. However, there was little attention on application outside of the school context or in a setting for adult population. This section will briefly report the effectiveness of TGA for school-aged children as an instructional model and then discuss Diagram 1 . Maintaining Possession in Ultimate Frisbee and Team Handball. Conceptual Framework of Tactical Games Approach PE teachers can identify the most important tactical problems in their sports lesson unit. First step for TGA is providing m dified game playing practice for students to mote student’s decision-making in given tactical awareness situations. One of considerations is level of tactical complexity when identifying tactical awareness. There are diverse learners in relation to skill


more about TGA research focused on the adult population. TGA Research and Student Outcomes . Numerous research studies have indicated the effectiveness of TGA compared to the traditional teaching method (Carpenter, 2010; Chatzipanteli et al., 2016; Gouveia et al., 2019; Harvey et al., 2015; Hodges et al., 2018; Tjeerdsma et al., 1996). Gouveia et al (2019) examined the TGA model with a technique-based approach. There were three variables including movement pattern, decision making, and performance in basketball, team handball and soccer of invasion game category. These variables were assessed during game playing in secondary level PE classes. TGA was more effective for students in that they improved on the-ball movement which required better decision making and also participated more in “gamy” playing. There was a positive relationship using TGA in the secondary PE settings. Students engaged more in physical activity (PA). According to Hodges et al. (2018), the use of TGA lessons in secondary level PE classes, students had more intense levels of PA time which were almost close to nationally recommended PA levels in PE. According to Centers for Disease Control (2010), it is recommended that school-aged children should have more than 60 minutes, moderate to vigorous PA, at least 3 days a week. Moreover, students showed improved gameplay performance in this study (Hodges et al, 2018). In secondary level PE classes, students preferred learning new sport skills based on TGA (Tjeerdsma et al, 1996). In the study, perceptions, values and beliefs of participants were measured using survey and interview. All the students in the study could improve their skill level and had more motivation when they learned badminton in PE using TGA. Particularly, badminton units using TGA were effective curriculummodel in PE when students had 6-week sessions rather than 3-week sessions (Tjeerdsma et al, 1996). Elementary level students can improve their learning of sports in their PE classes with a basis of TGA. Teachers can have an important role in planning and implementing their PE classes and connecting their lesson plans using TGA. This can greatly influence a student’s positive learning experience. In addition, participants showed more excitement and improved skill performance without being affected by gender, class size, and the sport unit within ultimate frisbee and basketball in this study (Carpenter, 2010). In the research conducted by Chatzipanteli et al. (2016), researchers measured metacognitive behavior, cognitive and motor skills learning in elementary PE volleyball units based on TGA. They found TGA was effective showing that participants in the study were more active and improved level of tactical awareness. In elementary and middle school level PE classes, students showed a great amount of excitement when learning basketball with a basis of TGA (Harvey et al., 2015); especially, with using contextualized game situations embedded in TGA. There was a long-term effect in that students showed more accountability and self-determined motivation by engaging in modified game playing in this study. As well, students were more likely to attain the current PAguidelines when they taught PAusing TGA in their PE classes. There was the previous study which investigated the perception of pre-service PE teachers (n=28) regarding 8-week tennis lessons using TGA (Gubacs-Collins, 2007). In-service PE teachers in this

study responded that TGA in their tennis lessons were effective to improve content knowledge. Particularly, in-service PE teachers expressed that questions and answers of TGA approach were effective when they instructed their students. Teachers expressed that teaching with TGA was helpful. It allowed them to reflect upon their teaching practice although they required time to adjust planning and implementing TGA in the first phase. Participated students (n=18) in tennis lessons were interviewed in the study and they described their experience as meaningful in that they can learn skills and tactical knowledge in the specific context of game playing. The Q & A section was practical for student’s cognitive learning and providing corrective feedback. Additionally, both teachers and student participants expressed they were excited in TGA based lessons. Butler (1996) interviewed pre-service teachers (n=10) to explore their perception regarding TGA. The study showed teachers had a sportive view regarding using TGA in that children participating in the study increased their understanding, game playing time and interaction with peers. Likewise, the study by Gubacs-Collins (2007), interviewed teachers described TGA was an effective tool for their PE classes. At the same time, study participants expressed that the initial phase of TGA were the most difficult step. To prevent those difficulties, there should be a careful planning and implementing when using TGA in PE classes. In summary, researchers have reported the effectiveness of TGA in terms of motivation, understanding, and increase level of engagement and PA level of students across elementary to secondary level of PE classes. Among reviewed studies, two studies explored preservice PETE teacher’s experience connecting to implementation of TGA. PETE candidates were positive about TGA, especially about the Q &Apart and reported TGA as effective for understanding and social interaction while emphasized the importance of planning and implementing TGA particularly for the initial steps (Butler, 1996; Gubacs-Collins, 2007). TGA Research for Adult Population . TGAresearch has mostly been conducted across the elementary and secondary school aged population in PE classes. Even though research is limited, several studies proved the effectiveness of TGA for adult population to teach sports and game playing. Dorak et al. (2018) compared TGA and direct instruction targeting college level students in their 12-week handball training. They measured cognitive, and psychomotor domain using surveys and assessed sport performance with Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI; Mitchell et al, 2021) of TGA. At the end of the training, interviews were conducted to explore participant’s experience regarding their psychomotor, and cognitive development and game performance. Participants could improve their sport performance with the basis of TGA rather than direct instruction, while there was no significant difference on psychomotor and cognitive domain between two approaches. Participants exhibited that they had more positive experience with TGA in terms of decision making in sports and game playing. Harvey & Robertson (2017) investigated how PA level was different depending on the type of game category. Particularly,


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