more about TGA research focused on the adult population. TGA Research and Student Outcomes . Numerous research studies have indicated the effectiveness of TGA compared to the traditional teaching method (Carpenter, 2010; Chatzipanteli et al., 2016; Gouveia et al., 2019; Harvey et al., 2015; Hodges et al., 2018; Tjeerdsma et al., 1996). Gouveia et al (2019) examined the TGA model with a technique-based approach. There were three variables including movement pattern, decision making, and performance in basketball, team handball and soccer of invasion game category. These variables were assessed during game playing in secondary level PE classes. TGA was more effective for students in that they improved on the-ball movement which required better decision making and also participated more in “gamy” playing. There was a positive relationship using TGA in the secondary PE settings. Students engaged more in physical activity (PA). According to Hodges et al. (2018), the use of TGA lessons in secondary level PE classes, students had more intense levels of PA time which were almost close to nationally recommended PA levels in PE. According to Centers for Disease Control (2010), it is recommended that school-aged children should have more than 60 minutes, moderate to vigorous PA, at least 3 days a week. Moreover, students showed improved gameplay performance in this study (Hodges et al, 2018). In secondary level PE classes, students preferred learning new sport skills based on TGA (Tjeerdsma et al, 1996). In the study, perceptions, values and beliefs of participants were measured using survey and interview. All the students in the study could improve their skill level and had more motivation when they learned badminton in PE using TGA. Particularly, badminton units using TGA were effective curriculummodel in PE when students had 6-week sessions rather than 3-week sessions (Tjeerdsma et al, 1996). Elementary level students can improve their learning of sports in their PE classes with a basis of TGA. Teachers can have an important role in planning and implementing their PE classes and connecting their lesson plans using TGA. This can greatly influence a student’s positive learning experience. In addition, participants showed more excitement and improved skill performance without being affected by gender, class size, and the sport unit within ultimate frisbee and basketball in this study (Carpenter, 2010). In the research conducted by Chatzipanteli et al. (2016), researchers measured metacognitive behavior, cognitive and motor skills learning in elementary PE volleyball units based on TGA. They found TGA was effective showing that participants in the study were more active and improved level of tactical awareness. In elementary and middle school level PE classes, students showed a great amount of excitement when learning basketball with a basis of TGA (Harvey et al., 2015); especially, with using contextualized game situations embedded in TGA. There was a long-term effect in that students showed more accountability and self-determined motivation by engaging in modified game playing in this study. As well, students were more likely to attain the current PAguidelines when they taught PAusing TGA in their PE classes. There was the previous study which investigated the perception of pre-service PE teachers (n=28) regarding 8-week tennis lessons using TGA (Gubacs-Collins, 2007). In-service PE teachers in this

study responded that TGA in their tennis lessons were effective to improve content knowledge. Particularly, in-service PE teachers expressed that questions and answers of TGA approach were effective when they instructed their students. Teachers expressed that teaching with TGA was helpful. It allowed them to reflect upon their teaching practice although they required time to adjust planning and implementing TGA in the first phase. Participated students (n=18) in tennis lessons were interviewed in the study and they described their experience as meaningful in that they can learn skills and tactical knowledge in the specific context of game playing. The Q & A section was practical for student’s cognitive learning and providing corrective feedback. Additionally, both teachers and student participants expressed they were excited in TGA based lessons. Butler (1996) interviewed pre-service teachers (n=10) to explore their perception regarding TGA. The study showed teachers had a sportive view regarding using TGA in that children participating in the study increased their understanding, game playing time and interaction with peers. Likewise, the study by Gubacs-Collins (2007), interviewed teachers described TGA was an effective tool for their PE classes. At the same time, study participants expressed that the initial phase of TGA were the most difficult step. To prevent those difficulties, there should be a careful planning and implementing when using TGA in PE classes. In summary, researchers have reported the effectiveness of TGA in terms of motivation, understanding, and increase level of engagement and PA level of students across elementary to secondary level of PE classes. Among reviewed studies, two studies explored preservice PETE teacher’s experience connecting to implementation of TGA. PETE candidates were positive about TGA, especially about the Q &Apart and reported TGA as effective for understanding and social interaction while emphasized the importance of planning and implementing TGA particularly for the initial steps (Butler, 1996; Gubacs-Collins, 2007). TGA Research for Adult Population . TGAresearch has mostly been conducted across the elementary and secondary school aged population in PE classes. Even though research is limited, several studies proved the effectiveness of TGA for adult population to teach sports and game playing. Dorak et al. (2018) compared TGA and direct instruction targeting college level students in their 12-week handball training. They measured cognitive, and psychomotor domain using surveys and assessed sport performance with Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI; Mitchell et al, 2021) of TGA. At the end of the training, interviews were conducted to explore participant’s experience regarding their psychomotor, and cognitive development and game performance. Participants could improve their sport performance with the basis of TGA rather than direct instruction, while there was no significant difference on psychomotor and cognitive domain between two approaches. Participants exhibited that they had more positive experience with TGA in terms of decision making in sports and game playing. Harvey & Robertson (2017) investigated how PA level was different depending on the type of game category. Particularly,


Made with FlippingBook - Online catalogs