they measured PA level of students in PE classes by comparing the invasion (e.g., lacrosse and frisbee) and net/wall game (e.g., pickleball and badminton) using TGA lessons. Total 24 lessons (12 invasion game and 12 net/wall game lessons) were provided and PA intensity were measured based on accelerometers. None reached PA levels in net/wall games (50% moderate to vigorous PA during lesson time) while participants could accumulate moderate PA intensity during invasion game lessons. This is consistent from the previous research which reported the effectiveness of invasion game in terms of PA intensity. There is lack of studies regarding PA and adult population. Only one study was found which used game centered approach attributed from TGA in coaching female college level soccer players (n=17) (Haneishi et al, 2009). Cognitive learning during game playing were measured based on GPAI. Participants improved game performance both on and off the ball as well as had a better understanding about the main tactical problems during game play. Game play was also positive for interaction of soccer players beyond their cognitive learning. To summarize, even though the research was limited on the use of TGA in the adult population, TGA can be regarded as a productive instructional model to teach sports in the adult population. Studies proved the possibility of using TGA for adult population showing that it was effective in terms of skill execution, cognitive and psychomotor development, however there is a need to research further the intensity of PA during TGA lessons due to lack of studies and methodological flaws. Additionally, only one study used TGA in coaching (Haneishi et al, 2009). The results showed adult athletes had a better understanding and performance level during game playing, and positive interaction with teammates with the basis of TGA. General Ideas to Implement Tactical Games Approach Early Childhood For early childhood to low elementary level children, basic motor skill development is necessary to engage in more advanced levels of activities. From the view point of dynamical systems theory, motor skill development is non-linear which implies motor skill development can be influenced by internal (child-related factors) and external (environmental and task related constraint) variables (Newell, 1986). In TGA, its cycle is practical for learners to develop their learning progressively in that it considers technique use in the specific context of game play and sport compared to merely learning techniques in decontextualized environment (Stolz & Pill, 2009) and traditional teaching PE is criticized due to the lack of context (Stolz & Pill, 2009). Not all the tactical complexity can be appropriate for beginner level students, thus, practitioners require to identify possible levels of tactical complexity (Mitchell et al., 2021). For exam, in soccer, beginner level students can practice their basic kicking throughout passing and receiving practice in a modified, small-sided court followed by intermediate level of tactical complexity focus such as supporting and retaining aspects of soccer (Mitchell et al., 2021). Thus, the level of complexity of TGA can be reflected in terms of different skill level of students accordingly. Using further simplified and modified game playing, children can develop their understanding of sports

and have meaningful experiences in PE classes. Additionally, when implementing PE for early childhood learners aged 3 to 8 years, practitioners need to use special caution and sophisticated preparation to motivate the students. Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI). In PE settings, formative assessment is required for ongoing teaching-learning process. GPAI is an effective tool for teachers and peer-evaluation when implementing TGA in PE settings (Memmert & Harvey, 2008). The GPAI employed a tally system to observe skill performance and decision making in sports. For instance, on or off the ball (object) movement (i.e., in soccer, on the ball movement as passing and shooting and off the ball movement as supporting the ball carrier) can be evaluated and this is related to skill performance connecting to decision making. Physical educators need formative assessment to observe what is going on during the learning process of student, and authentic measurement will be practical for practitioners to provide corrective feedback for their student (Memmert & Harvey, 2008). Practitioners can plan and implement game playing for their students at the starting point and utilizing GPAI can be an authentic tool to evaluate progressions of students. Under assumptions of TGA, children can understand and t hen make more reasonable decisions during game playing by recognizing the most needed tactical solutions. With using GPAI, feedback statements of teachers will be imperative to reinforce student’s learning of game playing or sport context. Additionally, peer evaluating during game playing can be one more way to use GPAI and this can be practical for student’s learning because students can improve their understanding in the specific tactical situations by observing their peers. Sport Education Model (SEM) . To combining TGA with other curricular model, a (SEM) has been frequently used by physical educators at the K-12 level. A SEM is a curriculum and instructional model which has lots of strengths for students in elementary and secondary level (Siedentop, 1994; Siedentop et al, 2019). SEM research has been conducted in a diverse context across K-12 level PE. Students can have positive PE experiences with the use of SEM by having a better understanding for game playing or sports in their PE lessons, and positive interaction with their peers (Hastie, Martínez & Calderón 2011). Prichard and McCollum (2009) explained the benefits combining SEM and TGA. Students can have more opportunity to learn sports by engaging in sports with prolonged time periods (seasons) instead of general PE unit (Sidentop, 2002). The SEM provides students opportunities to experience several different roles in a rotation like that of a coach, official and player. As a team, students have the specific roles such as captain, recorder, facilitator. Also, all the team members are required to share information such as progression of their teams through team journals. As described by Prichard & McCollum (2009), physical educators can combine these two approaches so that students can demonstrate their tactical understanding about sports by participating in PE with an increased level of excitement. Once students are familiar to the routine and lesson format of TGA


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