Conclusion It is possible that classroom elementary teachers will work with students with VI at some point during their teaching career. It is the responsibility of the educators and administrators to provide students with services that will meet the needs of their disabilities in all settings, including recess. The benefits to children, including children with disabilities, of active participation in recess, are noteworthy. This paper has addressed characteristics, causes, and prevalence of children with VI and has provided modifications for increasing the social skills of students with VI in the recess setting. Disclaimer: This manuscript is for informational purposes only. The information provided in this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. References Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). Vision health initiative (VHI): Fast facts about vision loss. Retrieved from fastfacts.htm Council On School Health. (2013). The crucial role of recess in school. AAP News and Journals . Retrieved from https:// Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Pub. L. No. 108-466. (2004). Kovar, S. K. (2012). Elementary classroom teachers as movement educators. McGraw-Hill. Perkins School For The Blind. Visual impairment statistics including population, causes, education and employment. National Library of Medicine. (2018). Global prevalence and causes of visual impairment with special reference to the general population of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Medical sciences. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm. Perkins School for the Blind. (2017). Visual impairment statistics including population, causes, education and employment. Retrieved from files/Visual_Impairment_Statistics.pdf World Health Organization. (2021). Vision impairment and blindness. World Health Organization . Retrieved from blindness-and-visual-impairment.

an individual has a strong set of social skills, they are able to communicate, relate to, and connect with other people (Council On School Health, 2013). Young children with VI can experience delayed motor, language, emotional, social and cognitive development (World Health Organization, 2021, para 5). A less structured recess setting may not address a student whose development is already delayed. Modifications need to be made to address these concerns in this important and influential setting. Social Modifications for Students with Visual Impairments in Recess Recess can have a positive or negative affect on students with VI, as it can on any student. As noted, this is especially true because of the social impacts of the recess setting. In terms of addressing social concerns in the recess setting, possible modifications that can be made by the classroom teacher to assist in addressing any concerns include the following: • Equipment adjustments such as using bright colored balls or auditory aids such as beeping balls to make students more successful and willing to participate • Rule adjustments for all students such as forgiving technicalities or increasing the number of student turns during games. The adjustments would be made for all students so as not to signal out the student with the VI. All students should enjoy success. • Boundary modifications such as increasing/decreasing play space or using markers to outline the play space • Walking around the perimeter of the play space with a student with a VI before recess so that the student feels comfortable in the environment • Discussing appropriate social behaviors with all students • Discussing social behaviors with the student with VI such as looking in the direction of the person that is talking, waiting for the other person to finish talking before jumping in, etc. • Encouraging students to use their voice • Explaining the environment to students including the people, games, or situation that are happening in the recess setting • Teacher participating with the student with the VI so as to encourage other students to join in and then often be able to step away


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