The Virginia Journal
Vol. 43, No.2
Photo Credit: Dr. Michael Moore, Radford University
Virginia AHPERD Members,
It is my pleasure to serve as the editor of The Virginia Journal (TVJ) and Communicator. Enclosed you will find theWinter 2022 issue. I hope to continue the successful publications of TVJ and Communicator. However, the success of TVJ and the Communicator only go as far as the members and our submissions. I ask that you continue to submit the quality work you have in the past. Let the state, region and nation know the outstanding work we are doing in Virginia AHPERD. So, this is my continued call for manuscripts for the next issue of TVJ and news information for the Communicator. The TVJ and Communicator depend on the submissions from our exceptional professionals working in the field. So please continue to e-mail me your manuscripts and news by January 15 and July 15 as a Word attachment for the two publications. Please follow the manuscript guidelines posted in each issue of TVJ. My contact information is below.
Sincerely, Michael Moore, PhD, LAT, ATC Radford University Professor, HHP Clinical Coordinator, ATP firstname.lastname@example.org 540-831-6218
About Virgina AHPERD
Mission Statement Virginia AHPERD is a professional association of educators that advocate quality programs in health, physical education, recreation, dance and sport. The association seeks to facilitate the professional growth and educational practices and legislation that will impact the profession. Virginia AHPERD Values • Excel lence in teaching, research and educational practices in HPERD and related professions • Positive efforts to promote our disciplines • Professional integr i ty and high ethical standards • Effective communication within and between members and related professionals • An active and healthy lifestyle • Embracing the role of special and diverse populations
Virginia AHPERD Priorities Member Services Communication Marketing and Promotion Education
Visit Virginia AHPERD’s Web Site www.vahperd.org
Membership Publications Resources Links Forms
Virginia AHPERD Leadership Divisions Students Awards and Grants
T able of C ontents
The Virginia Journal Editorial Board
Jamie Best Avita Health System Robert Case Old Dominion University Rodney Gaines Hampton University Melissa Grim Radford University Kenny Harrah Warm Hearth Village Jay Johnson Virginia Military Institute Brandon Kimble Virginia State University Matthew D. Lucas Longwood University April Moore Dublin Elementary
Volume 43, Number 2
Combining Leisure and Learning to Improved Health and Academics via Canine Assisted Reading Programs ......................................................................2
Social Benefits for Students with Hearing Impairments ............................................6
Providing Inclusive Recreation Programming: A Checklist for Recreation Service Providers . ....................................................................................8 Self-Supervision: A "Help Yourself" Approach to Better Teaching and Increased Student Learning ......................................................................................11
Social Benefits of Recess for Students with Impulse Control Disorder ...................20
Guidelines for Manuscript Submission (Revised Spring 2021) ........................................24
Michael Moore Editor Radford University
Executive Director Mike Maina
Virginia AHPERD President - Donna Wilbur
President-Elect - Danielle Christian Past President - Megan McLaughlin
The opinions of the contributors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the attitude or views of Virginia AHPERD, its officers, or the editor of this Journal. Virginia AHPERD does not discriminate in this or any other of its programs on the basis of color, religion, age, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, disability or handicap.
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Combining Leisure and Learning to Improve Health and Academics via Canine Assisted Reading Programs Dr. Kirstin L. Whitely , DHA, CTRS, Assistant Professor in Therapeutic Recreation, Department of Health, Recreation, and Kinesiology, Longwood University Madellyn G. C. Richardson , CTRS, Bachelor of Science in Therapeutic Recreation, Longwood University Logan E. Levine , Undergraduate Student in Therapeutic Recreation, Longwood University
Introduction Recreation and play-based activities allow children to access imagination which drives creativity, a desire to learn by gaining knowledge about self, the environment and skill mastery (Brown, 2009). Children will experience a flow state when leisure skill matches the level of challenge in the activity; consequently, con centration sharpens on the task at hand, and they receive real time feedback, resulting in deepening of skill and knowledge (Csik szentmihalyi, 1990 as cited in Anderson & Heyne, 2012). While educators have become more in-tune with these attributes of play and leisure as tools for teaching and learning, one potentially beneficial leisure-based learning tactic, animal-assisted interven tions, has been underutilized. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a goal-directed interven tion based upon clinical or educational goals in which an ani mal with specific skills or training interacts with a human being with the intention of promoting or improving social, emotional, physical and/or mental function (American Veterinary Medi cal Association, n.d.). Animal-based interventions date back to Ancient Greece where the presence of horses was believed to have healing and comforting effects for individuals who were seriously ill (Alliance on Therapy Dogs, 2018). Since then, the therapeutic benefits of animal-human interactions have been well documented in the literature across many disciplines including recreational therapy/therapeutic recreation (RT/TR) (Hallybur ton & Hinton, 2017). Specifically, this article will discuss a sub set of AAT, canine-assisted reading programs (CARP) which is a goal-driven intervention wherein the student reads aloud to a trained canine companion (Fung, 2017). While this experience impacts each person differently, CARP can be socially emotion ally, physically and academically beneficial for children with and without disabilities. CARP are considered therapeutic recreation because children have fun while interacting with therapy dogs who are non-judg mental, calm and patient while they read (Fung, 2017). RT/TR is “a systematic process that utilizes recreation and other activity based interventions to address the assessed needs of individuals with illnesses and/or disabling conditions, as a means to psycho logical and physical health, recovery and well-being” (ATRA, 2015, para.5). Moreover, Certified Therapeutic Recreation Spe cialists (CTRS), or recreational therapists, are well-suited and situated to implement CARP because RT/TR services are more prevalent within school settings as well as before-after school programming for children with and without disabilities (Wilder et al., 2014).
Purpose The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to review the litera ture in order to highlight the benefits of CARP participation for school-age children with and without disabilities, and (b) identify evidence-based practice guidelines for educators and/or health professionals such as CTRS’ interested in incorporating a CARP into their curriculum/therapeutic programming. Benefits of Canine Assisted Reading Programs Social-Emotional Benefits While the act of reading is generally thought of as a cogni tive process and an independent activity, for children, especially those with disabilities or impairments, it can have social and emotional ramifications as well. Biophilia hypothesis suggests that humans are social animals that thrive and attend to tasks bet ter when the environment contains other living entities, rather than just inanimate objects alone (Hall et al., 2016). It stands then, that children would be more willing to engage with objects in the environment, books in this case, when associated with liv ing beings, or canines. Research findings support the biophilia hypothesis as children participating in CARP do demonstrate improved attention and motivation (Hall et al., 2016; Kirnan et al., 2015). Schuck et al. (2015) reported improved social skills, prosocial behavior as well as a decline in negative symptoms for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) participating in a CARP when compared to a control group. Hall et al. (2016), Lane & Zavada (2013), and Lewis (2017) all noted increases in CARP participant confidence. Another hallmark of CARPs cited in several studies either an ecdotally or correlatively is that the children perceive the dog to be a non-judgmental partner in the reading process resulting in decreased anxiety, improved confidence, autonomy and social ization (Lane & Zavada, 2013). In their systematic review, Hall et al. (2015) highlights a study in which children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) displayed positive attitudes, feelings and affect including smiling and laughing and decreased problem behaviors as a result of participation in a CARP. In another small pilot study, children with intellectual and physical disabilities who participated in a CARP experienced improved expression of feelings, spontaneous interaction, autonomy and confidence (Rincón et al., 2021). Physical Benefits Rincón et al. (2021) and others have also observed that im proving fine and gross motor skills is another potential benefit
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Canine Assisted Reading Program Logistics There was significant variation in program duration in the studies reviewed, however, all programs lasted at least six weeks (Bassette & Taber-Doughty, 2016; Lane & Zavada, 2013), rang ing to more than a year (Perkins, 2017). The most common length of programs were ten weeks (Hall et al., 2016; Lane & Zavada, 2013; Le Roux et al., 2014; Perkins, 2017; Uccheddu et al., 2019) and an entire academic school year (Beck, 2015; Kirnan et al., 2015; Lane & Zavada, 2013; Lewis, 2017; Shaw, 2013). Other program durations included 12 weeks (Schuck et al., 2013); 16 weeks (Shaw, 2013); 20 weeks (Fitch, 2017); and 6 months (Rincón et al., 2019). Program duration is an important factor when planning a CARP because it may play a role in functional gains made by the participant. Functional changes were noted at different thresh olds in certain studies. For example, Le Roux et al. (2014) re ported statistically significant higher reading comprehension was not fully seen until week eight of the ten-week program. Schuck et al. (2015) noted benefits for children diagnosed with ADHD emerging by week four. Based on the evidence, RTs/educators should consider planning program duration to be a minimum of ten weeks ranging up to a full academic year. Duration of Sessions Sessions were defined by minutes/hours spent with the therapy dog each week. Again, there was significant variation in the stud ies reviewed ranging anywhere from 10 minutes (Lewis, 2017) to 4.5 hours (Schuck et al., 2015) per week. The most common ses sion duration was 15-20 minutes (Beck, 2015; Fitch, 2017; Hall et al, 2016; Kirnan et al., 2015; Lane & Zavada, 2013; Le Roux et al., 2014; Perkins, 2017; Shaw, 2013). Other session durations included 30 minutes (15-Uccheddu et al., 2019), 45 minutes (Rincón et al., 2021), and 60 minutes (Kirnan et al., 2015). While the evidence suggests session duration should be a minimum of one 20-minute session per week, it is also important to consider session content as well as other developmental factors such as reading level and attention span when making that determination. Session Content Reading aloud to the dog is essential in every session; how ever, the presence or absence of assessment and child-canine ac climation is a factor in determining session length. For example, Rincon et al., (2021) engaged participants in canine acclima tion every session necessitating that it be longer. Sessions may be elongated based upon the social, emotional, physical and/or academic skills the participant is expected to execute during the session. Lane & Zavada (2013) discuss a study in which partici pants read a full book by the completion of the program which may be more time consuming than short reading passages. Func tional skills expectations and requirements should be based upon student academic/treatment goals, especially those listed in Indi vidual Education Plans (IEP) or 504 plans and conveyed on the outset of the program both to the participants and their guardians.
associated with CARPs. Children with intellectual and physical disabilities demonstrated improved postural control, eye-motor coordination and sensation following a 12-session CARP (Rincón et al., 2021). In a lab-based study, when completing motor tasks with a dog present compared to without, children were faster and more accurate (Hall et al., 2016). Lane and Zavada (2013) posit that natural pet-human interaction such as petting and play, may result in experiencing a physical calming as evidenced by low ered blood pressure. Academic Benefits Although time spent with a canine reading companion can cer tainly be fun as well as emotionally, socially and physically ben eficial, the primary purpose is to improve academic reading per formance. Le Roux et al. (2014) conducted a randomized control trial, comparing CARPs to several control groups such as a “ted dy bear group” wherein the children read to a teddy bear. They found that children, especially the boys, in “the dog group” had significantly better reading comprehension than the other groups (Le Roux et al., 2014). Uccheddu et al., (2019) conducted a study wherein parents of children with ASD were surveyed and found that the children in the CARP when compared with the control group had perfect attendance, were significantly more motivated and willing to read, more likely to read at home autonomously, and more likely to complete homework. In a case study of four chil dren with emotional-behavioral disabilities who read to a “class room pet” demonstrated improved reading performance when compared to their pre-study baseline (Bassette & Taber-Doughty, 2016). A study by Lewis’ (2017) who surveyed teachers following the implementation of a CARP for children who had been identi fied as having low reading ability, motivation and/or self-esteem observed improved reading confidence and stamina, improvement in teacher assessments for reading, oracy, and writing. Similarly, Kirnan et al. (2015) noted children in a special education and/or English as a Second Language program enrolled in a CARP expe rienced improved reading enthusiasm, increased focus and on-task work. Teachers in this study were also convinced of the effective ness of CARPs in improving academic performance as all of them recommended the program be continued and expanded to other schools (Kirnan et al., 2015). Bassette & Taber-Doughty (2016), Lane & Zavada (2013), Shaw (2013), and Uccheddu et al. (2019) all found that motivation of the student to read increased through out the progression of the program. Evidence-Based CARP Implementation Guidelines Indeed, the social, emotional and physical health and academ ic performance benefits warrant consideration for implementing a CARP, especially for children with disabilities or those that ex perience reading deficits/challenges. To assist interested educa tors/RT in the prospect of implementing a CARP, the following section offers considerations for program planning and include (a) program logistics; (b) session duration and content; (c) func tional skill assessment tools; (d) environmental recommenda tions; and (e) resources and safety.
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Functional Skills Assessment CARPs have roots both in the healthcare field led by therapists or providers (Bassette & Taber-Doughty, 2016; Lewis, 2017; Perkins, 2017; Rincón et al., 2019; Schuck et al., 2015; Shaw, 2013; Uccheddu et al., 2019) as well as in education led by teach ers (Bassette & Taber-Doughty, 2016; Beck, 2015; Fitch, 2017; Hall et al, 2016; Kirnan et al., 2015; Lane & Zavada, 2013; Le Roux et al., 2014; Lewis, 2017; Perkins, 2017; Shaw, 2013). Re gardless of field, it is important for CARP facilitators to utilize standardized assessment tools to measure student progress and growth. For example, Schuck et al., (2015) utilized health-based assessment tools including ADHD and social skills improvement rating scales. Whereas Kirnan et al. (2015) utilized Northwest Evaluation Association’s Measures of Academic Progress to de termine reading skills. Environment The environment can be vitally important to student success in CARP. The most common setting found in this literature review is a classroom allocated solely for participant-canine interaction. This helps in avoiding outside distractions or disruptions found in typical classrooms or treatment rooms (Bassette & Taber Doughty, 2016; Beck, 2015; Fitch, 2017; Hall et al, 2016; Kirnan et al., 2015; Lane & Zavada, 2013; Le Roux et al., 2014; Lewis, 2017; Perkins, 2017; Shaw, 2013). Libraries are also common ly utilized due to the quiet and peaceful environment typically found in this setting (Hall et al., 2016; Kirnan et al., 2015; Lane & Zavada, 2013). While other settings were utilized in some studies, the evidence points to utilizing a space allocated for the sole purpose of the CARP away from the primary classroom. Resources & Safety In any circumstance that involves animals and children, health and safety must be of paramount concern and every effort made to maintain the wellness of all involved. It can be cumbersome for teachers/RTs to establish protocols and policies for therapy animals in a school setting. Instead, schools might consider part nering or contracting with reputable therapy dog or CARP agen cies who have well-established protocols, insurance, trained/ certified handlers and canines (Fung, 2017). Agencies such as Reading Education Assistance Dogs (READ) will require that the therapy dogs are properly immunized, healthy and certified to work with participants prior to the start of programming (Fung, 2017). Fung (2017) recommends holding a workshop for parents, students and teachers whereas READ allows the child to social ize with the dog prior to reading at the beginning of each session (Shaw, 2013). It is important that teachers/RTs collaborate with agencies and handlers on the best strategies for acclimating par ticipants and dogs. Conclusion The aim of this article was to present the social, emotional, academic and physical benefits of CARP for school-age children with and without disabilities. Additionally, to provide evidence based guidance for RT’s or educators interested in starting a
CARP. While CARP are a relatively new intervention and future research is still needed to validate its effectiveness, the evidence is promising. By combining recreation and learning, CARP have the potential to help children with and without disabilities to make social, emotional, physical and academic improvements. References Alliance of Therapy Dogs. (2018, July 1). A history of therapy dogs for depression . Alliance of Therapy Dogs. https://www. therapydogs.com/animal-therapy/ American Therapeutic Recreation Association. (2015, May). Who we are . American Therapeutic Recreation Association. https://www.atra-online.com/page/WhoWeAre American Veterinary Medical Association. (n.d.). Animal-assist ed interventions: Definitions . American Veterinary Medical Association. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/avma policies/animal-assisted-interventions-definitions . Anderson, L. & Heyne, L. (2012). Therapeutic recreation prac tice: A strengths approach. Venture Publishing Inc. Bassette, L. A., & Taber-Doughty, T. (2016). Analysis of an ani mal-assisted reading intervention for young adolescents with emotional/behavioral disabilities. RMLE Online, 39 (3) , 1-20 . https://doi.org/10.1080/19404476.2016.1138728 Beck, K. R. (2015). The impact of canine-assisted therapy and activities on children in an educational setting [Master’s the sis, St. John Fisher College]. Fisher Digital Publications. Brown, S. L. (2009). Play: How it shapes the brain, opens the imagination, and invigorates the soul . Penguin. Fitch, S. (2017). The impact of a canine assisted reading pro gram on a reluctant reader’s literacy learning [Master’s The sis, The College at Brockport: State University of New York]. Education and Human Development at Digital Commons at Brockport. Fung, S. C. (2017). Canine-assisted reading programs for chil dren with special educational needs: Rationale and recom mendations for the use of dogs in assisting learning. Educa tional Review , 69(4), 435-450. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131 911.2016.1228611 Hall, S.S., Gee, N.R., & Mills, D.S. (2016). Children reading to dogs: a systematic review of the literature. PloS One, 11 (2), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759 Hallyburton, A., & Hinton, J. (2017). Canine-assisted therapies in autism: A systematic review of published studies relevant to recreational therapy. Therapeutic Recreation Journal , 51(2), 127. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2017-V51-I2-7969 Kirnan, J., Siminerio, S., & Wong, Z. (2015). The impact of a therapy dog program on children’s reading skills and attitudes towards reading. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44 , 637-651. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-015-0747-9 Lane, H. B., & Zavada, S. D. (2013). When reading gets ruff: Ca nine-Assisted reading programs. The Reading Teacher , 67 (2), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1204 Le Roux, M., Swart, E., & Swartz, L. (2014). The effect of an animal-assisted reading program on the reading rate, accuracy and comprehension of grade 3 students: A randomized control
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Schuck, S.E., Emmerson, N.A., Fine, A.H., & Lakes, K.D. (2015). Canine-assisted therapy for children withADHD: Pre liminary findings from the positive assertive cooperative kids study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19 (2), 125-137. https:// doi.org/10.1177/1087054713502080 Shaw, D. (2013). Man’s best friend as a reading facilitator. Reading Teacher, 66 (5), 365-371. https://doi.org/10.1002/ TRTR.01136 Uccheddu, S., Albertini, M., Pierantoni, L., Fantino, S., & Pir rone, F. (2019). The impacts of a reading-to-dog programme on attending and reading of nine children with autism spec trum disorders. MDPI: Animals, 9 (8), 1-12. https://doi. org/10.3390/ani9080491 Wilder, A., Craig, P. J., & Frye, M. S. (2014). Therapeutic rec reation empowering kids: Exploring best practices in transi tion. American Journal of Recreation Therapy , 13 (2), 33-48. doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2014.0071
study. Child Youth Care Forum, 43 (6), 655-673. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10566-014-9262-1 Lewis, H. (2017). Tales with tails: Why bringing dogs into class rooms may reap rewards. English 4-11 University of Wales, Trinity Saint David, 60 (1), 11-13. Perkins, E. C. (2017). When reading gets ruff: Understanding the literacy experiences of children engaged in a canine-assisted reading program (Publication No. 10253933) [Doctoral Dis sertation, University of Rochester - Warner School of Educa tion]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Rincón, L.L., Martín, B.R., Sánchez, M.A., Villafaina, S., Mer ellano-Navarro, E., & Collado-Mateo, D. (2021). Effects of dog-assisted education on physical and communicative skills in children with severe and multiple disabilities: A pilot study. MDPI: Animals, 11 (6), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ani11061741
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Social Benefits of Recess for Students with Hearing Impairments Kylie M. Casey , Undergraduate Elementary Education Major, Longwood University Matthew D. Lucas, Ed.D., C.A.P.E. Health, Recreation and Kinesiology, Longwood University Introduction
• Not responding when you ask a question the first time • Difficulty with the pronunciation of certain words (Shah, 2022, pg. 1) • Continuously asking someone to speak slower or more pre cisely. (HL - Symptoms and Causes, 2021, pg. 1 Having HI can cause a child to be bullied by fellow peers or lead to depression as a lack of participation in social events (Depres sion in hearing-impaired children, 2011). This may also impact their academics as they are statistically shown to miss “50% of classroom discussions,” leading to a decrease in understanding topics and grades dropping (Hearing Loss Facts and Statistics, 2018, pg. 1). These students who face HI tend to remove them selves from large groups to not draw attention to themselves. This causes them to feel isolated and possibly start to form depressive thoughts due to not having many friends and not feeling included in a classroom. (Depression in hearing-impaired children, 2011). This can ultimately decrease the social benefits of a child often gained in schools, including during recess. Social Benefits of the Recess Setting for Children with HI The social benefits that students can gain from recess are numer ous. Recess is a time for students to practice their social skills and work out situations using problem-solving. Socialization includes learning to communicate and learning expected proper behaviors. Children learn how to accept each other and value individual dif ferences. For students with HI, social cues are sometimes harder to pick up because the tone of voice plays a crucial part. By being able to practice picking up on social cues without using tone, students with HI will be better prepared for real-life scenarios. Wilson and Valent (2013) state that during recess, “children learn valuable communication skills, including negotiation, cooperation, sharing and problem-solving as well as coping skills such as perseverance and self-control” (p. 1). Recess Modifications for Children with HI As noted previously, recess is a great setting for potential obtainment of the social benefits for students with HI. However, classroom teachers will need to make modifications for students with HI in the recess setting. The following is a list of possible modifications that a teacher can implement. • Teaching basic sign language in the classroom so students could use sure signs during recess time. Examples could be the signs for the words/phrases “start”, “stop”, “would you like to”, “ball”, “more”, and “less”. • If the HI student is comfortable with it and knows sign lan guage, they could also have time in the classroom to teach a new word every day before recess. This could help boost participation in recess • Creating games that do not include speaking, like silent ball, where students pass a ball back and forth but cannot speak so
Students with hearing impairments participating in recess can be a challenge, but it can also benefit the students. There are mul titude positive results that can be attributed to active participation in recess such as an increase in social skills, problem-solving, and an increase in movement. This article will focus on the social benefits of the recess setting. The manuscript will provide the definition, characteristics and symptoms, and causes of hearing impairments. Increasing active participation and addressing the social skills of students with hearing impairments in recess will be discussed. Finally, the authors will present modifications that can be provided for students with hearing impairments in this setting. Definition and Prevalence of Hearing Impairments The Individuals with Disabilities EducationAct defines Hearing Impairment (HI) as “an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational perfor mance” (IDEA, Sec. 300.8 (c), 2018). In order for someone to hear, “sound waves pass through the outer ear and cause vibrations at the eardrum. The eardrum and three small bones of the middle ear amplify the vibrations as they travel to the inner ear. The vibra tions pass through fluid in a snail-shaped structure in the inner ear (cochlea) “(Hearing Impairment, 1). If one part of this complex system gets injured, the individual’s hearing will be affected. Statistics published by the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (Quick StatisticsAbout Hearing, 2021) note that about 3 out of every 1,000 children are born with some kind of HI, and approximately 30 million children 12+ and older have hearing loss in both ears. Research about students with deafness shows that only 1.3% of students at school are completely deaf (Garberoglio et al., 2019 p. 1). Causes of HI There are numerous causes for hearing loss, according to Cla son (2020), including factors that are environmental and heredity. Clason (2020) notes that there are significant factors of hearing loss depending on the degree. • Genetics • Ear infections that are not treated • Chronic exposure to loud music • Old age: This is because as we get older, the nerve cells inside our ears start to deteriorate, impacting our hearing (p. 1) Noting the list above, for children genetics would be the lead ing cause. Characteristics of HI People with hearing loss may wait up to 7 years until they seek out help. For ages 1-5, there is a shorter period. As a toddler, if a child does not respond to sounds, you are immediately tested.
Some symptoms for children might be; • Difficulty talking or starting to talk
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Hearing loss - Symptoms and causes . (2021, April 16). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases conditions/hearing-loss/symptoms-causes/syc-20373072 Hearing loss facts and statistics . (2018, May). Hearing Loss Associ ation of America. Retrieved from https://www.hearingloss.org/ wp-ontent/uploads/HLAA_HearingLoss_Facts_Statistics.pdf Garberoglio, C., Palmer, J., & Cawthon, S. (2019). Undergradu ate enrollment of deaf students in the United States. National Deaf Center . Retrieved from https://www.nationaldeafcenter. org/sites/default/files/Undergraduate%20Enrollment%20%20 of%20Deaf%20Students%20in%20the%20United%20States. pdf Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2018, May 25). Sec. 300.8 (c). https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/a/300.8/c Quick statistics about hearing . (2021, March 25). National In stitute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/ quick-statistics-hearing#1 Shah, U. K. (2022, February 7). Hearing impairment in children . Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved from https:// www.merckmanuals.com/home/children-s-health-issues/ear nose-and-throat-disorders-in-children/hearing-impairment in-children Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing impaired children. International journal of pediatric otorhi nolaryngology , 75 (10), 1313–1317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ijporl.2011.07.023 Wilson, C., & Valet, J. (2013, March 30). Recess a critical oppor tunity for social and emotional learning. Southeast Education Network . https://www.seenmagazine.us/Articles/Article-Detail/ articleid/2908/recess-a-critical-opportunity-for-social-and emotional-learning
that students who cannot hear will not have a disadvantage. • Visually and physically demonstrate activities for the students. • Encourage small games instead of more significant games. • Allow the opportunity for anyone to participate. • Encourage students to play games such as “horse” instead of traditional basketball. • Encourage various physical activities that can be done with out the need to hear, such as jumping rope, push-ups, and sprinting. Conclusion Participating in recess might be a challenge for students with HI, but the benefits are numerous. Multiple benefits to participat ing in recess were discussed in this manuscript, such as increas ing the practice of social skills, addressing problem-solving, and increasing physical activity. Through this article, modifications and the social benefits were addressed and hopefully helped cre ate an inclusive environment for all students with HI to receive the benefits of recess. Disclaimer: This article is intended for informational purposes only. The information provided in this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. References Clason, D. (2020, November 10). Age-related hearing loss . Healthy Hearing. Retrieved from https://www.healthyhearing. com/report/52510-Presbycusis-understanding-age-related hearing-loss#:%7E:text=Why%20do%20we%20lose%20 hearingear%20that%20help%20us%20hear Hearing impairment . (n.d.). Montana DPHHS. Retrieved from https://dphhs.mt.gov/schoolhealth/chronichealth/develop mentaldisabilities/hearingimpairment
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Providing Inclusive Recreation Programming: AChecklist for Recreation Service Providers Whitney Kallenbach , M.S., CTRS, Clinical Educator, Longwood University, Health, Athletic Training, Recreation & Kinesiology organization, and only 1 out of 4 rural agencies had one.
Introduction A guiding philosophy of parks and recreation providers is to en sure that all people have access to spaces and programs that make their lives, and their communities, great (NRPA, 2018). Inclusion in recreation is the philosophy that individuals, with and without disabilities, can and should engage in recreation together. In inclu sive recreation programs, participation is open to all people, and accommodations are made for those who need them (Anderson, 2012; Anderson & Kress, 2003; Dattilo, 2002; Miller, Schleien, & Lausier, 2009; Schleien, Ray, & Green, 1997). In inclusive recreation, the focus is on the activity, not solely on the disability, which leads to a greater respect between all participants, with and without disabilities (Anderson & Kress, 2003; Schleien & Green, 1992; Snow, 2013b). Benefits to inclusive recreation include building social inter action skills (Meyer, 2001); gaining physical health and fitness (Anderson & Heyne, 2010); and creating a sense of belonging for participants with disabilities (Abery, 2003). When the benefits to inclusion are known, why may a person with a disability, or parents of children with disabilities, choose not to participate in inclusive recreation? One potential barrier that has been identified to participation in inclusive recreation is the reliance on segregated recreation programs (Anderson &Heyne, 2000;Anderson &Kress, 2003). Another barrier may be that the person with the disability is not being encouraged to transition from segregated programs to inclusive programs when ready (Mayer & Anderson, 2014). For the purposes of this discussion, the term specialized rec reation will be used to describe recreation that is segregated by disability, not necessarily interest. Historically, it was thought that individuals with disabilities needed separate programs to accom modate lower skill levels, different learning processes, or different physical abilities (Fennick & Royle, 2003). For some people with disabilities, the preference for programmatic participation may be in specialized programs, specific to their disability. For others, inclusive programming may be desired, but they may lack access or awareness. The purpose of this article is to provide recreation providers with basic guidelines to make inclusive opportunities part of their organization’s culture. Inclusion Process The first place to start in the inclusion process is with program matic promotion, including a clear inclusion policy on marketing materials (Anderson & Heyne, 2021). When parks and recreation providers promote inclusion through policy and practice, it sends the message that people with disabilities are encouraged to par ticipate in the programs, without the burden being placed on the individual with the disability.According to the National Recreation and Parks Association’s Inclusion Report (2018), only 2 out of 5 park and recreation agencies had a formal inclusion policy for their
Many times, much of the burden to advocate for a child with a disability falls on the parents of the child. Schleien, Miller, Walkton & Pruett (2014), found that parents cited significant frustration with the lack of access to recreation services, and that many par ents gave up on the fight for inclusive services due to exhaustion. Parents also noted that they felt that if recreation providers did not want their kids in a certain program, that by continuing to push for acceptance, that they were creating a toxic environment for their child. What if recreation providers took the responsibility of making people with disabilities feel included into their own hands? What if from the first time they see a program brochure they know that they are welcomed and accepted in an inclusive environment? “When we speak of inclusion in society, we often point to the diversity of people gathered in a meeting space or assembled on a team. Too often, we forget that the manifestation of that diversity begins with a personal invitation to participate” (Simpson, 2018). Providing Inclusive Recreation Programming A Checklist for Recreation Providers ❏ Do our marketing materials show people with disabilities participating alongside those without disabilities? ❏ Are we clearly marketing possible supports and accommoda tions available to foster inclusion? ❏ Example: a formal inclusion policy in our brochures and websites ❏ Do we have similar programs with various competition levels to accommodate a variety of abilities? ❏ Example: 8-10-year-old basketball, both a skill-building program and a competitive program ❏ Are we encouraging participants in specialized recreation programs to transition to inclusive settings when they are able? ❏ Example: are providers telling participants in specialized recreation about inclusive programs that they can partici pate in when they are ready ❏ Do we have accommodation/support questions on our regis tration forms? ❏ Do we have a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist (CTRS) on staff functioning as an inclusive recreation co ordinator? ❏ Are ALL staff, from front desk workers to leadership, trained in disability awareness, inclusion and the organizations spe cific policies and practices? ❏ Could be provided by CTRS
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Transitioning from Segregated to Inclusive Recreation It may seem like a daunting task to transition a from a specialized recreation program to an inclusive one, especially if the specialized program is all the person with a disability has ever known. There are several keys that both the person with the disability (and family members), as well as the recreation provider, can do to support the transition to inclusive recreation. First is having programs with a non-competitive goal. When people are asked what they preferred about specialized recreation as opposed to inclusive recreation, a finding was the opportunity for skill-building as opposed to competition (Mayer & Anderson, 2014). If recreation providers are able to provide programs where skill building, socialization and cooperation are the focus, inclusion may be more successful. This may not only be helpful to those with disabilities, but for any person who wants to try a new program, or learn a new recreation skill, without the intensity of competition. Another way to support the transition to inclusive programs is to use clear communication with participants. Before starting a new program, there should be an open discussion about what supports and accommodations the person may need, and ways to achieve success using these supports. Knowing what has worked in the past, or what areas may be of a concern, is a key to success. Knowing the individual’s strengths, and how they can use these strengths to be successful in the program is key for the recreation provider to be successful. Including these questions in program registration materials, along with a follow up meeting with CTRS on staff to talk about specific supports is recommended. Another recommendation is to ask the person if they are comfortable with providing, or working with the CTRS to provide, peer education so they can educate others in the program on what may or may not be beneficial ways to help them. Case Study Jack is a 6-year-old child with autism. Jack has been expressing interest in sports, and Jack’s mom feels that it would be beneficial for him to participate in an organized recreation program. Cur rently, Jack attends a private Pre-K program and attends private swimming lessons with an instructor who has a background in working with children with autism, but he does not participate in any other formal recreation programming. Jack’s mom thinks he would enjoy participating in soccer, but she doesn’t know where to start. In the past, she has inquired about various inclusive recreation opportunities, but has felt that providers were not en couraging her to enroll Jack, but instead, pushing her to look for a program specifically for children with autism. For this reason, she is nervous to enroll Jack in the general soccer program. The park and recreation program brochure lists specific programs for people with disabilities, but doesn’t directly mention anything about options for inclusive participation. Jack’s mom called the recreation provider and discovered that they have a CTRS on staff. She met with the CTRS and together they identified Jack’s strengths, as well as areas he may need additional support. They identified Jack’s strengths: ● Jack is very good at following specific directions. ● Jack does best with visual reminders.
● When he likes something, Jack can stay on task for long periods of time. ● Jack has 2 friends from Pre-K that are also planning to play soccer. Then Jack’s mom talked about what extra support would help Jack to participate successfully: ● Apicture transition board to help Jack know what is coming up next during practice. ○ Mom is willing to make this with input from the coach. ● The ability to be on a team with at least one of his peers from Pre-K. ● The help of the CTRS as an inclusion support for the first 1-2 practices. ● An area with sensory stimulation elements that Jack can use if he gets over stimulated. ○ Peer education provided by CTRS explaining why Jack has special accommodations and how his peers can sup port him. ● The ability to meet the coach before the first practice. The park and recreation department, Jack, and his Mom all worked together. The first practice was a little hard for Jack because of the new environment, but when he appeared to feel nervous, one of his friends from Pre-K was able to comfort him. The CTRS helped Jack to identify what was coming next using the transition board that his mom helped make. After three practices, Jack was comfortable with the routine and no longer needed the CTRS there as an extra support person. The park and recreation department now has a formal inclusion policy on their website, brochures and registration form. All staff are now being trained on the policies on inclusion practices for individuals with disabilities. Conclusion The purpose of parks and recreation providers is to improve the quality of life for all members of the community, as recreation pro viders, it is not only important that we are able to provide inclusive services when approached, but that we are sending the message of inclusion at every step of the process, starting with marketing materials and a formal inclusion policy. Some providers may say that no one has ever asked for inclusive programs, but is the root of the problem that they have never been offered? Transitioning from specialized services to inclusive can be intimidating for the agency, but imagine how intimidating it must be for the person and family to ask for these services without knowing where the agency stands. By using the provided checklist, providers can take some of the burden off the individual with the disability and promote an environment of inclusion and acceptance. References Abery, B. (2003). Social inclusion through recreation: What’s the connection? Impact, 16 (2), 2-3, 32-33. Anderson, L., & Heyne, L. (2000). A statewide needs assessment using focus groups: Perceived challenges and goals in providing inclusive recreation services in rural communities. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 18 (4), 17-37.
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Anderson, L., & Heyne, L. (2010). Physical activity for children and adults with disabilities:An issue of “amplified” importance. Disability and Health Journal, 3 (2), 71-73. Anderson, L., & Heyne, L. (2012). Therapeutic Recreation Practice: A strengths approach. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc. Anderson, L., & Kress, C.B. (2003). Inclusion: Including people with disabilities in parks and recreation opportunities. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc. Fennick, E., &Royle, J. (2003). Community inclusion for children and youth with developmental disabilities. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities , 18 (1), 20–27. Mayer, W. E., & Anderson, L. S. (2014). Perceptions of people with disabilities and their families about segregated and inclu sive recreation involvement. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 48 (1), 61-73.
Meyer, L. H. (2001). The impact of inclusion on children’s lives: Multiple outcomes, and friendship in particular. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 48 (1), 9-31. National Recreation and Parks Association. (2018). Parks and recreation inclusion report. Retrieved from https://www.nrpa. org/contentassets/e386270247644310b06960be9e9986a9/park recreation-inclusion-report.pdf Simpson, K (2018, October). Communicating inclusion through images. Parks & Recreation. 26-29. Schleien, S.J., Miller, K.D., Walkton, G., & Pruett, S. (2014). Parent perspectives of barriers to Child Participation in Rec reational Activities. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 48 (1), 61-73.
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Abstract Examples abound in both the topical literature and research findings of the link between critical components of effective teaching and student learning in physical education. Intentional and systematic supervision of physical educators represent one means of analyzing the presence and rate of effective teaching skills and how student achievement is influenced. Thus, key student and teacher behaviors believed to have a relationship with student success were identified and monitored via a systematic self-directed supervision process. This article describes how a self-supervision strategy was used by a veteran elementary physical education teacher to document instructional patterns and their effect on student learning. A supervisory report on three individual lessons detailing instructional effectiveness changes across the lessons was generated. A narra tive was developed to describe if student learning was adequate or not, data were examined to support this justification, and improvement goals were listed for each subsequent lesson. This exercise of self-reflection and evaluation was accomplished by using a comprehensive, systematic observation protocol known as the West Virginia University Teaching Evaluation System (WVUTES). Self-Supervision: A “Help Yourself” Approach to Better Teaching and Increased Student Learning (Reprint) Steve Shelton , M.S., Senior Instructor, Radford University, Department of Health and Human Performance- Physical and Health Education Teaching Andrew H. Hawkins , Ph.D., Professor, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV
Supervision in physical education has been defined as a spe cialized form of feedback given to a practicing teacher that is systematic and intentional with the purpose of developing, im proving, and maintaining instructional effectiveness (Metzler, 1990; R. L. Wiegand, personal communication, January 20, 2010). This feedback is strategic information provided after a teaching episode and communicated individually to teachers tak ing into account the specific stage of a teacher’s development, current skill level, and work context. Ideally, supervisors moni tor practicing teachers using systematic observation techniques, compile objective data on performance, and give feedback to as sist teachers with an increase in their instructional effectiveness (Metzler, 1990). Unfortunately, supervision techniques in physical education appear to suffer from many of the same deficiencies experienced in other areas of education. Metzler (1990) stated “supervi sion has failed to look upon itself as a teaching process, one in which the supervisor helps the teacher learn the many complex tasks, skills, and decisions necessary for effective instruction in schools” (p. 7). Inadequacies within physical education supervi sion are complicated by the fact that few supervisors have experi ence teaching in public schools, have no specialized training in the area of supervision, and are assigned a myriad of professional duties that may limit their ability to deliver appropriate supervi sion on a regular basis (Metzler, 1990). Mosher and Purpel (1972) described the condition of tradi tional measurement strategies by reporting “the inescapable con clusion to be drawn from any review of the literature is that there is virtually no research suggesting that supervision of teaching, however defined or undertaken, makes any difference” (p. 50). Despite the acknowledged importance of effective supervision, Metzler (1990) concluded “supervision suffers from inadequate conceptualizations of what it is about, who should conduct it, and
where it should happen” (p. 12). In some instances, supervision isn’t simply missing the tar get, it is missing entirely. Many elementary physical educators are often the only teacher at their assigned schools teaching their specialized subject matter. This isolation from colleagues who are conversant with the planning, content development, and ped agogy specific to physical education often leaves physical educa tors without a peer or supervisor to provide essential feedback. Often the only feedback provided to teachers comes after the use of traditional supervisory methods such as checklists and rating scales and their associated rubrics. Although these tech niques can assist teachers in becoming more aware of certain as pects of their teaching not specific to systematic assessment such as enthusiasm and decision-making, these conventional systems should be used in a limited fashion to supplement systematic ob servations (Metzler, 1990). When appropriate and frequent supervision do occur, the teacher’s current stage ofdevelopment is a critical component in considering the appropriate supervision techniques to be used. Metzler (1990) reported that “supervision faces its most difficult task in trying to help experienced teachers improve their instruc tion. Experienced teachers are likely to have deeply ingrained instructional patterns and sometimes little incentive for working on new teaching skills” (p. 20). He continued by suggesting “peer supervision and self-super vision are the most viable instructional improvement strategies for veteran teachers” (Metzler, 1990, p. 20). Similarly, Cusima no, Darst and van der Mars (1993) reported “perhaps the most useful evaluation is self-evaluation because the more involved you are in the process, the more aware you become of behaviors you might want to modify” (p. 27). Rink (2010) noted the significance of treating systematic ob servation as a process and acknowledged the importance of col -
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