RM Winter 2016 FLIP

2014; Kimbell-Lopez, 2003; Levy, Coleman, & Alsman, 2002).

allows for more information to be collected in a shorter amount of time. The use of devices may not only make group work easier in the classroom, but also make it easier at home. Students can access their accounts at home and complete their assignments for the next day on the collaborative document. The activity tracker tool in Google Apps encourages students to be accountable and gives the teacher an idea of who is participating in the group work and who is not. This technology provides the teacher with an understanding of classroom leaders for future group design. Overall, the digitization of cooperative reading may make it easier to allow group work to become cohesive by allowing all of the group members to see each other’s work instantaneously. This may enable all of the participants to feed off each other’s ideas and obtain greater understanding of the text that is being studied. Research supports technology as a tool for comprehension, and reading development with online tools has slight positive outcomes. One study found that students preferred online reading (using the Nearpod app) for guided reading using traditional books (Delacruz, 2014), citing interactivity as the most common reason. While it is not surprising that students prefer technology integration, teachers may question its effectiveness. In a meta-analysis of 20 studies based on approximately 7,000 students in grades 1–6, educational technology applications produced a positive but small effect on the reading skills of struggling readers (ES = .14) in comparison with“business as usual”methods such as drill and practice (Cheung & Slavin, 2013). Conclusion In an age where technology is increasingly integrated into education, it is important to consider when to use high-tech applications and when traditional strategies are beneficial to effectively deepen understandings in the classroom. An understanding of how traditional and high-tech applications support cognition and learning may lead to a harmonious balance of these strategies in the classroom. Cheung & Slavin (2013) caution, “there is no magic in the machine,”stressing the importance of the combined choice of software, role of the teacher, nature and quality of professional development, time devoted to unplugged and plugged-in activities, and time allowed for each type of practice. This article has provided 4 tasks, each with an unplugged and plugged-in option: a) Think-tac-toe and Blendspace, b) Table-top blogging and weblogs, c) Reader’s theatre and Applications for production, and d) Collaborative Strategic Reading and Google Docs. As educators continue to make decisions on ways to extend classroom learning, there is no question technology will be a part. How we use technology effectively in the classroom and how we make instructional decisions involving the use of plugged-in and unplugged interventions will remain a focus of curiosity and study. References Anderson-Butcher, D., Lasseigne, A., Ball, A., Brzozowski, M., Lehnert, M., & McCormick, B. (2010). Adolescent weblog use: Risky or Protective? Child Adolescent Social Work Journal, 27 (1), 63-77.

Unplugged Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) teaches students to use and build comprehension strategies while working cooperatively (Dimino, Simon, & Vaughn, 2007; Klingner, Vaughn, Arguelles, Hughes, & Ahwee, 2004; Sencibaugh, 2007). When CSR is first practiced in the classroom, a nonfiction publication such as Weekly Reader , Junior Scholastic , Time for Kids , or a similar nonfiction publication with high interest content is recommended. But once the strategies (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up) have been taught and students develop proficiency, the CSR technique can segue nicely to other reading practices, such as a literature circle. At that point, the roles students assume during CSR can transition to traditional literature circle roles to maximize comprehension. For more information on Collaborative Strategic Reading and accompanying materials, visit the Iris Center online resource page. Plugged-in Even though Collaborative Strategic Reading is an effective way to foster comprehension of non-fiction texts in the classroom, monitoring independent work in the groups can be a difficult undertaking. One method of streamlining the supervision and assessment of reading groups uses Google Docs, which has a capacity for multiple accounts to be simultaneously connected to the same document so that modifications can be made by all of the group members in real time. Imagine the CSR group no longer being confined to your classroomwalls! You can collaborate group work with a class across town, across the state, or on the other side of the world! Just imagine the impact on geographical understandings. The sharing capabilities offered by Google Apps not only allows the group members to see each other’s work, but also allows the teacher to see the progress of each group and comment on the content whether during discussion or afterward. This flexibility allows teachers to formatively assess each group without interrupting the flow of CSR group. To transition students from face-to-face CSR to online collaboration, teachers can have students use sticky notes to mark interesting text passages with notes for future discussion. Students can also keep a journal to record thoughts and feelings as they read, later noting parts that lend themselves to discussion with a star. In one study of middle school students involved in online cooperative groups, 298 student self-reflections and 8 student interviews resulted in three themes: (a) students were excited and engaged, (b) students experienced technology trials and triumphs, and (c) reflective teaching was essential (Day & Kroon, 2010). These themes are not surprising; student skills at both interacting socially and digitally continue to develop with experience. And, as teachers, we are reflective practitioners, constantly seeking ways to improve instruction for a greater educational experience. Another benefit of online cooperative reading groups is the ability to research topics online or to quickly find information about the book’s setting. Because the students can copy information directly from the browser on their device to a Google Doc, information gathering and sharing is simplified. This potentially

Reading Matters Teaching Matters

Amadieu, F., Van Gog, T., Paas, F., Tricot, A., & Marine, C. (2009). Effects of prior

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