RM Winter 2016 FLIP

Figure 2. An example of the Listen Sketch Label strategy is a first grade classroom. Listen and Sketch Label Listen Sketch Label Strategy (used with“Some Like It Hot”) • Introduce vocabulary terms to glacier

the term, which leads to language arts skills like finding synonyms, antonyms, and comparing and contrasting. The Frayer Model activates prior knowledge and helps students build connections to other concepts. The Frayer Model in the classroom. As Spring approached, Mr. Stevens was about to begin a new science unit on plants and soil. His second graders were going to be exposed to a host of new vocabulary in this unit. He planned to begin the unit by reading Different Kinds of Soil by Molly Aloian, an informational text in the Everybody Digs Soil series, with his students. In this text, he has already determined that students will need to know and understand some key words : soil, topsoil, humus , and bedrock . On four pieces of chart paper, Mr. Stevens drew the Frayer Model outline, labeling each section according to the vocabulary concept. While reading aloud Different Kinds of Soil , Mr. Stevens allowed his students to help him create the concept word map. To modify this strategy to meet the needs of his young learners, Mr. Stevens decided his map should include a student-friendly definition, an illustration, and a few examples and non-examples. This modifies the Frayer Model’s original intentions just slightly to better serve his students. The first word the students encountered in the text was soil . Mr. Stevens reread the page and asked students for help creating a definition of soil. Together, the students decided that soil should be defined as ‘a layer of dirt where plants grow.’Mr. Stevens showed his students where to write the definition. He then asked his students to explain how they thought soil could best be depicted in a drawing. After gathering several ideas, Mr. Stevens drew a picture of soil in the next square. The class then created a list of different soils, such as dirt, clay, and sand. In the last square, the class decided on some non-examples of soils such as plastic and water. After clearly modeling

students and provide them with the Listen Sketch Label template. Allow students time to turn-and-talk with a partner to discuss any ideas around the meaning of the word. • Read aloud “Some Like It Hot”from “Penguin Power. Reading the section in small chunks and stopping in pertinent points so students can listen to the vocabulary used in context. Read this portion twice. • Students visualize their interpretation of the term in their mind, and then sketch that image on their template in the correct section. (Optional: Students add words, phrases, or sentences for clarification.) • After reading aloud the section, students turn-and-talk to a partner to share their interpretation of the terms. • Together the class discusses the words and comes to a consensus on their meaning. (Optional: Students revise their sketch to indicate a correct understanding of the term. • With this new understanding, “Some Like It Hot” is read-aloud again.

Reading Matters Teaching Matters survivor burrow

The Frayer Model The Frayer Model, developed by Frayer, Frederick, and Klausmeier (1969), is a visual word map that teachers and students create to better understand content vocabulary. This strategy uses a graphic organizer to define

Figure 3. An example of the Frayer Model used in a second grade classroom. Definition a layer of dirt where plants grow

the process for students, Mr. Stevens allowed his class to work together in groups to create word maps for the remaining three vocabulary words. Mr. Stevens allowed each group to display their completed Frayer Models around the room for reference during the rest of the unit (see Figure 3).Fig. 3. An example of the Frayer Model used in a second grade classroom. Conclusion

words and concepts. This model is divided into five parts - four large squares with one circle in the middle. The Frayer Model asks students to organize their thinking about a word in four ways: a definition, characteristics, examples, and non-examples. With the vocabularly word in the center circle, each of these



descriptions is placed in one of four surrounding squares on the graphic organizer. Students then have a visual representation of a sophisticated vocabulary term they can reference. First students must analyze the word or concept to create definitions and characteristics; next, students synthesize information to find examples and non-examples. Allowing students to differentiate between what the meaning of the term is and is not allows for greater understanding of Examples dirt clay sand

Non-Examples plastic water

Students learn vocabulary as members of a learning community through interactions with others (Scott, Nagy, & Flinspach, 2008). Simply exposing children to sophisticated words, then, is not enough for them to completely understand the meaning of content-specific vocabulary. Instead, students must be immersed in a language- and word-rich environment that promotes both incidental and intentional word learning (Blachowicz, Fisher,

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