RM Winter 2016 FLIP

Graves, D. (1982). Writing: Teachers and children at work . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

work through each step (Read, 2010). Some students are going to require much more support than others, especially those with little confidence or motivation in writing. Make sure to take the time to build the skills with each student in an effective way and reteach when needed. The time spent doing this is worth it! Conclusion As a result of this work, I have seen my 4th grade students gain confidence and demonstrate lasting improvements in their writing. Now my students talk more during writing conferences than I do! They are able to share their goals, strategies, and evidence from their work and make decisions about how to improve as writers. I have found my role during conferences has shifted to asking guiding questions and providing support, when needed. Goal setting is one component of an effective writing program that can strengthen conferences and facilitate the development of independent, more engaged writers. References Anderson, C. (2000). How’s it going: A practical guide to conferring with student writers . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Hansen, B. D., &Wills, H. P. (2014). The effects of goal setting, contingent reward, and instruction on writing skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 47(1), 171- 175. Kissel, B. (2008). Promoting writing and preventing writing failure in young children. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth , 52(4), 53-56.

Reading Matters Teaching Matters

Mermelstein, L. (2013). Self-directed writers: The third essential element in the writing workshop . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Read, S. (2010). A model for scaffolding writing instruction: IMSCI. The Reading Teacher , 64(1), 47-52.

Schunk, D. H. (2003). Self-efficacy for reading and writing: Influence of modeling, goal setting, and self-evaluation. Reading and Writing Quarterly , 19, 159-172.

Schunk, D. H. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist , 25, 71-86.

Troia, G. (2014). Evidence-based practices for writing instruction (Document No. IC-5). Retrieved from University of Florida, Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Accountability, and Reform Center website: http://ceedar.education. ufl.edu/tools/innovation-configuration/  Amanda Pringle ( pringlea@fortmillschools.org ) graduated from Clemson University with her Bachelor’s in Elementary Education in 2011 and obtained her Masters in Reading fromWinthrop University in 2015. She taught fourth grade for four years and is transitioning into second grade for her fifth year of teaching. Her favorite pastime is reading, and she loves inspiring young readers and writers.

Calkins, L. (2004). The art of teaching writing . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Calkins, L., Hartman, A., &White, Z. (2005). One to one: The art of conferencing with young writers . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Estrada, B., &Warren, S. (2014). Increasing the writing performance of urban senior placed at-risk through goal-setting in a culturally responsive and creativity- centered classroom. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research , 10, 50-63.

Gillespie, A., & Graham, S. (2014). A meta-analysis of writing intervention for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children , 80, 454-473.

Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools – A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Shawnna Helf ( helfs@winthrop.edu ) is an associate professor of literacy education at Winthrop University. Her research interests include early reading intervention, instructional design, and teaching efficiency.

Graves, D. (2004). What I’ve learned from teachers of writing. Language Arts , 82(2), 88–94.

| 32 | Reading Matters | Volume 16 • Winter 2016 | scira.org


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