Literacy Matters Vol 24 Winter 2024

With students present and ready to listen to the story, vocabulary words should be introduced as the teacher reads the story. The teacher should explain and show the pictures and actions while reading. McGregor et al. (2021) found that “engaging children in discussion during the book readings worked better than simply reading the book aloud to them” (p. 5). Students must engage in dialogue to learn key vocabulary words and their meanings during the story. As the teacher reads aloud to the students, several strategies can be used to help them learn new words. Table 1 highlights labeling, synonyms, and context strategies that can be used during shared reading to facilitate Tier 2 and 3 vocabulary development. After the Reading After the story is read, students will have many opportunities throughout the school day to demonstrate the use of these words. Repeated exposure to vocabulary words expands understanding (Vaughn & Linan-Thompson, 2007). Teachers can support new vocabulary in curricular activities to help students experience success (Collins, 2010). The vocabulary usage does not stop after the story is read to students. Teachers must use these words at playtime and center time to get students to grasp how to use them in conversation. In her article, Tara Concannon-Gibney (2021) emphasizes the importance of making learning fun and engaging so students want to participate. Kindle (2008) described multiple ways to incorporate vocabulary into daily routines, such as morning board work, journal writing, recess, and even lunchtime. See Table 2 for examples of infusion activities for use after read alouds. Conclusion Early literacy development is essential for developing strong readers in later grades. Preplanning is one of the most critical parts of the whole process of this technique. The steps and lesson implementation may be tweaked and altered in response to individual student needs and the grade level that is being taught. The key is consistent monitoring and modeling with all students to help drastically improve and increase Tier 2 and 3 vocabulary acquisition. For the words to have meaning, they must be used multiple times across contexts and shown to be relevant in everyday conversation (Collins, 2010). The strategies discussed in this article are essential for implementation during read alouds that develop vocabulary. Moreover, as students progress in their language acquisition, they benefit from repeated read alouds, as each reading gives them additional opportunities to interrogate the meanings of familiar and new words.

reading the story, the teacher should go back to find words directly in the book that relate to the story. The teacher should make a list and then come up with child-friendly definitions (Hisrich & McCaffrey, 2021). Even though some words may include abstract terms, such as frustration or disappointment , the teacher can find or create a picture to illustrate the higher tiered vocabulary words, which is helpful for diverse learners. Below is a step-by-step outline to consider before utilizing shared reading to increase effective vocabulary instruction using planned read alouds. The following instructions help teachers prepare for this time of teaching and learning:

1. Select and read an age-appropriate story aloud.

2. Review the story to find Tier-2 vocabulary words to incorporate and teach using direct instruction.

Literacy Matters General Articles

3. Compile developmentally appropriate definitions, actions, and pictures to help students remember these words.

4. With students present, read the story, pausing to push in and teach the vocabulary words to students.

5. After reading the story, intentionally incorporate these words during center time through conversation or in a small group teaching setting if you do not have a designated playtime or center time. Direct vocabulary instruction benefits diverse learners, such as multilingual students and students with disabilities (Goldstein et al., 2017). Since the goal is to teach words to improve students’ comprehension of text containing these words, the methods become more labor and time-intensive than simple vocabulary memorization and tests (Hiebert & Kamil, 2005). Direct instruction examples can include using graphic organizers, such as K-W-L charts, to record the discussions and document student responses. Additionally, prior knowledge can be activated through picture walks, in which the teacher guides students to examine the illustrations in the book. During the Reading Fisher et al. (2004) discussed several components of read alouds and concluded that interactive reading styles in which students were actively engaged were more effective than those in which students were passive. Teachers can make read alouds interactive by encouraging students to answer questions, chime in on repetitive text, point or label, or respond through movement. In contrast, in more passive styles of read alouds, students act as the audience, taking a more passive role in the experience (Lennox, 2013).

| 32 | Literacy Matters | Volume 24 • Winter 2024


Made with FlippingBook. PDF to flipbook with ease